Uluhlu lwamagama

neeperile abalone
neeperile anobukhazikhazi ezinemibala eveliswe inkumba univalue enokutyiwa esivulekileyo iqokobhe ezimilise indlebe-khulu ngenxa ezimibalabala wayo unina-of-iperile imigxuma. Ezi zifumaneka Melika, New Zealand kunye namanzi yaseJapan. Kunqabile bhitmephu, bona badla buhlohlwa nendlebe okanye iwindow tooth-
ukufunxa
ukuthatha (umzekelo, into) okanye angenise okanye afumane amandla zamandla (umzekelo, ukukhanya)
Absorption spectrum
nesilinganiso lwelayini ezimnyama nkqo, bands, okanye imimandla (nokufunxwa ngokubanzi), zayibonayo ukukhanya ethe wadluliselwa okanye kubonakala ukusuka gemstone iphaphatheke libe zalo ecacicleyo nasele kusetyenziswa isixhobo esifana spectroscope.
Adamantine
ukubona inkazimlo
Adularescence
uphawu sibengezela bamantshontsho-ezimhlophe okanye milky (Schiller) uqhelaniso
Allochromatic
xa element lenguqu ukho nje ekungcoleni engephi umbandela gem, loo mbandela allochromatic (Allo = ezinye; Chroma = umbala)
Alluvium
elide jikelele ezisetyenziswa ngokuqhelekileyo imali xa kobutyobo rock (esihle iidipozithi) eziye ihanjiswa elibaleka amanzi ebekwe phantsi kumsinga, emlanjeni, unogumbe iibhedi plain okanye echibini.
Amorphous
ukubona non-ezikrelekrele
Anisotropic
ukubona ngeIsta refractive
Archimedes umgaqo
Archimedes mgaqo ithi xa umzimba msizi ulwelo, ngoko injongo phezulu kulwelo emzimbeni lilingana ubunzima ulwelo abangenamakhaya. (Ukuzimisela womxhuzulane othile ngendlela zalishumi hydrostatic isekelwe lo mgaqo)
amatye Artificial
magaqa eyenziwe ngumntu ukuba akukho umlingani zendalo (umzekelo, le simulants nedayimani: titanate kwiteksti kwaye YAG)
unyango Artificial
ekwandiseni ukubonakala into ngokuthi zokufudumeza, nizikhwebule, efakwe ukumitha, zokukhanya okanye laser-wokugrumba
akude ndawonye
nayiphi gem yenziwe iinxalenye ezimbini okanye ngaphezulu sele ngesamente okanye kweni kunye ukuba ilitye elinye
Asterism
asterism na isiphumo kubonisa, ngokubanzi ezine okanye-babehlola ntandathu, imicu zilungelelaniswe okanye nemingxuma uboya kwindawo ilitye luye lwathotywa en cabochon kunye inclusions nelungiselelwe ngokunxuseneyo moya umbhinqo
Aventurescence
kubonisa ngamandla bha ukukhanya iipleyiti okanye Imihlubulo omnye yezimbiwa ziqukiwe ilitye (umzekelo, njengoko sibonile iglasi aventurine, Quartz aventurine, aventurine feldspar (Sunstone))
Ezimanyeneyo macala
omnye iingxenye macala, i-axis macala ngumgca ntekelelo ngokusebenzisa embindini njengekristale, malunga apho yikristale unako abolikisane, ukwenzela ukuba imbonakalo efanayo izihlandlo 2, 3, 4 okanye 6 kwenye kujikelezo ngokupheleleyo (ie , ubuso efanayo ubambe isikhundla efanayo, ngaphezu kanye kujikelezo ngokupheleleyo)
neeperile ezimbejembeje
igama lisetyenziswa neyeeperile, bobabini zendalo nesiphucukileyo, zeeblista okanye umjikelo,
leyo engavumelekanga imilo
lebasalt
lebasalt, yeyona ixhaphakileyo KwabBtwe imabhuli iliwa, na emnyama, iliwa ocoliweyo-tofo kakhulu zenziwe feldspar emnyama kunye pyroxene (kunye okanye ngaphandle olivine). Kukho inani ezithi zihlelwa ngokuxhomekeke phezu yokungafani texture, isakhiwo kunye nesiqulatho nezimbiwa
amatye Biaxial
Kwiinkqubo ze-orthorhombic, monoclinic kunye ne-triclinic kukho ezintathu zeekristale zezembe zobude obahlukeneyo. Ukuphinda kabini ukwenzeka kuya kubakho kumacala amaninzi, kodwa kuya kubakho ii-axic optic (izikhombisi zokuphinda kubekanye) ezahlukileyo kubume bohlobo ngalunye lwe gem. izimbiwa zezinkqubo zaziwa ngokuba yi-biaxial. (Kwinkqubo ye-orthorhombic ii-axic optic zithambekele ngokulinganayo kwi 'c' (umgaqo othe nkqo othe nkqo), ngelixa kwi-monoclinic nakwi-triclinic kungekho buhlobo ngokuthe ngqo kunye nee-axis ze-crystal.)
Birefringence
(Nezaziwa Uphazamiso kabini / DR) birefringence sisixa Uphazamiso zeli- gemstone anisotropic wavakalisa njengomohluko phakathi indices refractive ngelo yokuzahlula ubuninzi
neeperile Biwa
neeperile non-nucleated nesiphucukileyo (rhoqo mbhoxo okanye anobukhazikhazi kwimilo yaseJapan) engumlimi ngeenxa kunxweme lweChibi Biwa eJapan. Perile ezilinywa ngokufaka ngamaqhekeza amancinci yokwaleka kungena umzimba eembaza iimbaza yamanzi ezinkulu
isiphako
elide jikelele isiphako ethi ichaphazele webala gem. Ukuba nesiphako idla okubangelwa zizenzo zabantu, nokuba lo gama gem wenziwa lisikwa ngoxa kunxitywa iimpahla. Imikrwelo, wemihadi, engophiyo zezona zixhaphakileyo iintlobo eligqibeleleyo
neeperile zeeblista
neeperile ezigqunywe kwicala elinye kuphela umaleko nacreous owakhulayo ubelilingene nekukholeleka original wadibana iqokobhe lemollusk. Xa atsalwa neeperile ezinjalo, ummandla lowo wadibana iqokobhe yi angqine nacre. Ngokufanelekileyo kweli cala wamzalela ngokuqhelekileyo mpuluswa kwaye efihliweyo lingekatshoni
kunyuse
Ubulumko linani lilonke ukukhanya iboniswe ngaphakathi ukuba wabuyela iliso ukusuka elinqabileyo. Kungenjalo ukuba lungabonakaliswa njengokukhazimla (ubomi) ye gemstone njengoko kumiselwe isixa ukukhanya iboniswa emva iliso ngasemva zeenkalo ilitye
Brittleness
brittleness ichazwa njenge ubuthathaka kwindawo gemstone apho nangona lukhuni yayo, kwenza kube sengozini ngokwaphulwa, umonakalo (umzekelo, ubushushu Zircon iphathwa)
iliso Cat ngayo
ukubona chatoyancy
Center of macala
enye yezinto ezifunekayo macala, iziko macala ekhoyo xa zonke ubuso yikristale ogqibeleleyo kuchasene olungaphesheya ubuso efanayo kwelinye icala yikristale (oko kukuthi, bonke ubuso inomnye ubuso efanayo, isini kunye ngaxeshanye)
Chatoyancy
Isiphumo sokubonakalisa ukusuka kufakelo olufanayo lwe-fibrous inclusions okanye (iliso lekati). Ukukhanya okukodwa kokukhanya kubonakala kwii-engile ezilungileyo kwicala lokufakwa kunye nokubonakala kakuhle phantsi komthombo omnye wokukhanya okuphezulu ngamatye asikwe en cabochon
Chelsea umbala rater
isixhobo ebandakanya indibanisela okucoca, nto nesenziwe ukuba uvumela ezimbini kuphela amacandelo emnxinwa malumga ukuze zibonakale kuyo: le ibomvu enzulu (kufuphi 690nm) kunye eluhlaza esimthubi (kufutshane 570nm). Oku kuluncedo xa ebonisa ubukho chrome okanye loSapho in GEMS ezithile, ekufunyanisweni kwe (chrome) idayi ngamatye kunye eyahlula ezinye izinto gem evela imitations yabo eqhelekileyo. Isikhumbuzo: Sebenzisa uphawu isilumkiso kuphela. Ubungqina ixhomekeke ezinye iimvavanyo
Chromophore
(Iarhente yokufaka imibala). Inxalenye yemolekyuli inoxanduva lombala wekhompawundi. Ikhona njengeyona nto ibalulekileyo ekwakhiweni kwamachiza ngamatye e-idiochromatic okanye njengobungcola be-accidentai kumatye e-allochromatic
ingcaciso
ligama elisetyenziswa ukuchaza inkululeko isalamane ukusuka nasiphi na isiphene internai okanye irregularity (inclusions) kwindawo gem. Inkcazelo kwakhona iyakwandiswa ukuze iquke kumphezulu iziphene (isiphako) xa kuqwalaselwa kwibakala ecace ngayo ilitye
umbala bands
bands kalukhuni engumzekelo umbala kubonwa kumphezulu zeekristali okanye izakhiwo internai amatye (kubonise izigaba ukukhula okubangelwa ngomahluko ekhoyo amachiza, ulwelo, ubushushu, uxinzelelo nezinye izinto)
Umbala kwi GEMS
umbono ocacileyo wezinto ezinokukhanya ukukhanya okumhlophe (bomvu, orenji, tyheli, luhlaza, luhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, ne-violet) kunye nemvakalelo emfusa engafumanekiyo kubume belanga. Umbala uchazwa ngombala, ukugcwala kunye neethoni. Umbala womzimba welitye elinqabileyo uvela ekukhanyeni apho ubonwa khona kunye nangenxa yokufunxwa kobude obuthile bokukhanya okubonakalayo. Umbala unokubangelwa kukusasazeka, ukuphazamiseka kokukhanya kunye ne-fluorescence
umbala socando
ucando umbala ikhule ngexesha ukukhula yikristale ngenxa azingqinelani zoqhaphelo obukuso. Iindidi ngebala (bands okanye imimandla) zidla zibonwa ukulandela ubuso yikristale ekhoyo
izinto imibala
nokufunxwa kukhetha ukukhanya ngenxa yobukho eziqalelo lotshintsho (ikhrom, icobalt, ubhedu, nevanadium, manganese, intsimbi, inickel, titanium) ngamatye idiochromatic kwaye allochromatic
indawo yokudlala
compact linentsingiselo efanayo oxandileyo kwaye lisetyenziswa ingakumbi xa liquid kubonisa umqondiso amasuntswana zesakhiwo (umzekelo, fme-olungisiweyo jadeite jade)
gemstone Composite
ukubona gemstone ndawonye
neeperile likanokrwece
neeperile pink: neeperile zingafumaneka likanokrwece omkhulu, wenkumba univalve yafunyanwa kufuphi nonxweme Florida, umsantsa of California kunye Mexico. Ezi neeperile ikholisa ezipinki (-orenji epinki okanye amhlophe) ngebala kunye luphawulwa kukunqongophala kusalekwa nacreous
Conchoidal
ndibone ukwaphuka
Qhagamshelana kum tamorphic
le recrystallization okubhalwe bezimbiwa zeengxondorha pre-ezikhoyo okanye kufutshane kummandla zoqhagamshelwano ngenxa ebusweni magmas
Qhagamshelana amawele
uhlobo akhazimlayo yokuthungelana apho bantu ba kwi zoqhagamshelwano ecaleni moya efanayo (-moya amawele). Amalungu amabini yikristale enjalo ezinxulumene ukuba inxalenye enye yajikeleziswa ngokusebenzisa 180 ° (isiqingatha turn) malunga axis (esqwini amawele) ngoko iziqingatha ezibini wayeza ukumila yikristale ngamnye. Amawele zoqhagamshelwano ikhona iifom ezimbini: zoqhagamshelwano elinye iwele-apho 2 macala e nekristale ukuze reverse ukwenzela ukuba omnye isiqingatha esijikeleziswa 180 ° malunga womgca bazibandakanye, ekwimo yikristale eqhelekileyo ifunyenwe; ngokuphindaphindiweyo, amawele-a polysynthetic okanye lammelar uhlobo akhazimlayo yokuthungelana equka uthotho amawele zoqhagamshelwano ngokufuthi zizixwexwe kakhulu. Ezi zicwangciswe orientation malunga abamelwane babo nangoko (umzekelo, njengoko efumaneka Corundum kunye feldspar). Bona amawele interpenetrant
angle Critical
loo engile izehlo apho ray ukukhanya leyo ohamba ukusuka azike optically ukuba mpawu eliphakathi oku refracted e 90 ° ngokwahlukileyo (oko kukuthi, loo nto ngokukhawuleza komhlaba eendaba amabini zoqhagamshelwano). Qaphela: naluphi na ukunyuka kule engile izehlo kuya kubangela ray refracted ukuba babuye umva kwi eliphakathi original apho kuya beyithobela imithetho bokubonisa (oko kukuthi, loo nto iya ngokupheleleyo ngaphakathi ibonakala.)
Cryptocrystalline
(Crypto = efihliweyo). Ikota kusetyenziswa ukuchaza ekuzezi inani omkhulu zeekristali ezincinane rhoqo sub-noluncinci ukuzazi ubunzima eqinile. Inkqutyana-noluncinci akhazimlayo aggregate angavela amorphous ukuba ngeliso lenyama
Crystal
njengekristale yinto siluqilima iyunifomu iikhemikhali kunye isakhiwo wayalela internai atom uhlobo lwangaphandle lingqongwe moya symmetrically amalungiselelo ubuso (ezisicaba)
uhlobo Crystal
luhlobo njengekristale libandakanya cwci ezo ibobaa bazibuza enxulumene nezamazembe crystallographic (umzekelo, iphiramidi, iprism, pinacoid, udaka)
Crystal mkhwa
iimilo yikristale (uhlobo, kunye kwiimpawu zomphandle) apho izimbiwa sidla ngokuba imikhwa yabo akhazimlayo
inclusions Crystal
yikristale inclusions abonakalayo ngokuba abo iikona emincinane kwaye tse noko. elintlangothi lazo iifomu elirhangqiweyo kancinane nazo wadibana ngenxa reabsorption ye inclusions. (Yikristale inclusions ngokuqhelekileyo ukubonisa phezulu isiqabu ngokuchasene komkhosi ngasemva xa zijongwa phantsi darkfield ukhanyiso. Baya zitshekishwe ngokusebenzisa polars bawela.)
Crystal macala
yikristale macala ibhekisa ngokomfuziselo elungeleleneyo ngokweathom. Yeyona yokuzala ngqo (phinda imbonakalo) yobuso efanayo yikristale (elintlangothi, iikona) ezibonisa lungiselelo wayalela angaphakathi kweziyobisi.
ezikrelekrele
izinto crystalline ngokuthi nkcazo ngezimbiwa eqinileyo ogama Iiyuniyoni, athom okanye iimolekyuli zicwangciswe ngendlela enocwangco. Ukuziqhelisa, lo gama idla ngokusetyenziswa ukuchaza izinto, umnini isakhiwo rhoqo kunye neepropati kumacala kodwa ukuba imilo lwangaphandle zejometri
zokutyhomfa Crystallographic
ezi imigca yentelekelelo yobude ukubaleka elingenammiselo ngokusebenzisa
yikristale efanelekileyo kumacala ezithile article ngokunxulumene lingano yikristale. Baya yendlela embindini yikristale kwindawo ebizwa ngokuba imvelaphi. (Bona imigca yereferensi kulinganiswa imigama lwezizalwane utyekelo ubuso ezahlukeneyo apho.)
neeperile nesiphucukileyo
neeperile nesiphucukileyo na yimibutho ubaxo yabangela ngokupheleleyo okanye ngokungaphelelanga
ngenxa songenelelo arhente yoluntu kwi Kumbindi izilwanyana nemveliso. Oku kusebenza neeperile nesiphucukileyo enoba okanye ngaphandle inucleus
neeperile mjikelo
neperile obenza ngaphakathi umzimba lemollusk pearl kwaye bhitmephu ukumila
ukubandakanywa Dendritic
Umthi-ofana nomoss-njengokuqhekeka kokuqhekeka (apho ukufakwa kwezinto ezahlukeneyo kunokugcwalisa ikhefu- ngesiqhelo intsimbi oxide.)
Divitrify
ukuphelisa ubukhazikhazi beglasi kunye notshintsho. (Kwimeko yemveliso yeglasi ebizwa ngokuba yi-meta jade- luphuculo lwe-incipient crystallization)
Dichroscope
le dichroscope na isixhobo evumela iziphumo pleochroic kwezimbiwa gem amakaqwalaselwe, imibala ezimbini okanye ezikhanyayo bebala ngexesha
Diffraction
le umgca ukukhanya luhlobo ezizodwa zokuphazamisana ukukhanya apho mhlophe ahlulwa (kwisifudumeze) ngokwemibala yayo icandelo njengokukhanya edlula emngxunyeni encinane okanye xa amaza ukukhanya ipasise ngohlangothi phakathi kwezinto ngokwahlukileyo refracting (umzekelo, umdlalo bebala kubonwa yihakinto ezixabisekileyo)
kwiintsali
Ukusasazeka kukwahlukana (ukwahlukana) kokukhanya okumhlophe kwimibala ebonakalayo ngokubonisa (ukugoba kokukhanya) njengokukhanya kudlula kwimiphezulu emibini ethambekileyo. Kwiigugu zihlala zibizwa ngokuba 'ngumlilo'
refractive kabini
i-anisotropic - iiminerals ezibonisa iipropathi zamehlo ezibonakalayo (umzekelo, amatye kwi-tetragonal, i-hexagonal trigonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic kunye ne-triclinic system)
spectrum yezixhobo
gama lisetyenziswa lonke uluhlu wavelengths zamandla ukusuka amaza elide irediyo ngokusebenzisa wavelengths kakhulu mfutshane lendalo
Izakhi macala
iingxenye wolingano kukho indlela classifi-hlulo zeenkqubo ezisixhenxe njengekristale. Ke izixhobo ukuze sikwazi ukuba sahlule bachaze iintlobo ezahlukeneyo njengekristale imilo. Ziquka moya-macala, i-axis macala kunye neziko-macala (jonga iinkcazelo phantsi kwizintlu ngamnye)
Eluvium
imali eluvial luqulathe kobutyobo rock (zegrabile) apho laye (uyewazikhusela kakuhle ngaphandle) kumamkeli iliwa kwaye ihlala kulungiso (indawo) ngaphandle uqeqeshwa uthutho emilanjeni
ayikhuphi
enokukhupha okanye (umzekelo, ukukhanya)
Enantiomorphism
isakhiwo ze- ye Quartz leyo ekuchithekeni ekhohlo ne ekunene isandla ekwehleni ukukhula Quartz, kunye dyobhana yayo setyhula. (Qaphela: Ukubekwa yobuso IPASO ezincinane kwezibonakalayo rhoqo phezu yangaphandle kwifomu uncedo ukuchonga lokuhambisa ekhohlo okanye ekunene yikristale)
UPhuculo
ukubona unyango eyenziweyo
inclusions Epigenetic
post inclusions lwanamhlanje. Abo ezenzeke emva kokumiselwa umkhosi njengekristale. Ezi zibandakanya iintlobo ezahlukeneyo iingxondorha kunye inclusions kwezimbiwa ezenziwa exsolution (umzekelo, rutile isilika kwi Corundum); singasathethi ioli / opticon, njl, yokutyiwa kwi ngokwaphulwa zizaliswe ubuncwane.
inclusions Exsolution
ukubona exsolved
Exsolved
le unmixing kwezimbiwa. Ezinye izibini kwezimbiwa yenze izisombululo eqinileyo kwiqondo lobushushu eliphezulu kwaye baba iyahlozinga ebanda ephantsi. Xa ezi aphozise chu omnye yezimbiwa anganyanzeleka xa isakhiwo umkhosi ayaphola nezivumelwano, ngokoqobo ukucudisa ubumdaka zithuba ezingenabantu apho nokuntlalutyisa (umzekelo, rutile inaliti (isilika) kwi Corundum)
ukuphela
lokutshabalala ukungabikho ukukhanya abuyele iliso. Oku kubangela ukuba abonakale mnyama ilitye, ningaswele billiance
amagama inkalo
GEMS esinamacala kuba sisithsaba (isahlulo phezulu entla kombhinqo), itafile (inkalo embindini isithsaba), nombhinqo (kwicandelo le ilitye kunye umjikelezo mkhulu okanye umda yangaphandle), ngumnquba (inxalenye esezantsi ngezantsi umbhinqo ). Zonke ezinye iinkalo ungahluka ngobukhulu yabo, amaxesha okanye ubukho kuxhomekeke isimbo nangokukrola kusetyenziswa. Umzekelo, kwi umgangatho inyathelo-wonqanyulwa (nelesmarado cut) amatye culet (nkalo encinane emazantsi egumbini) ithathwa umgca zikhangeleke (elide kumgca owandisiweyo ecaleni embindini ezantsi egumbini)
cleavage zobuxoki
ukubona Wahlula
Iintsiba ukubandakanywa
moya ye nemingxuma emfutshane yaye ngokuqhelekileyo ivele njenge inkitha amacandelo ocoliweyo intonga-injengayo intercommunicating imijelo (ngokuqhelekileyo ulwelo qhu).
uboya
ligama kunikwa izinto apho liquid abasemthethweni zezi yenaliti ezimilise (umzekelo, iasbhestosi, nephrite jade)
inclusions womwe
ezo nani kwaziwa ngeentsiba ukuphiliswa kwaye zibandakanya interconnecting uthungelwano lamajelo ulwelo-zigcwaliswe kwaye amathontsi ngokungathi iminwe. Ngokuqhelekileyo isiphumo kwezisombululo nezimbiwa ngokuthe nokuyicoca ibe ophuke pre-ezikhoyo kwi-yikristale sele, kwaye ephilisa Volcanic. Enye imeko apho iimpawu ezinjalo Kothi ngexesha lonyango ubushushu ubushushu. Lweminwe zixhaphakile kwekorale iphathwa
Gqiba
entanjeni ibhekisa umgangatho faceting ye gem kwaye kugwetywa iqondo ukhanye, rhoqo, kwaye flatness ngayo inkalo nganye
Fluorescence
rescence na ukukhutshwa ukukhanya ibonakale anqabileyo ukuba sebesazi radiations ezibonakalayo okanye engabonakaliyo ngamaza elifutshane (amandla ephakamileyo)
ukwaphuka
ngokwaphulwa yinto itshipu mgaqweni okanye ukuqhawuka ilitye
gem
nelitye elinqabileyo naluphi na uhlobo, zisike olukhazimlisiweyo nesihombo (iperile na ngaphandle ephawulekayo semfuno mva). Eyona ngokuthi nkcazo umntu anazo ubuhle, ixesha elide kunye nokunqaba
iglasi
iglasi gama lisetyenziswa kwi izinto ezo esishiywe ukunyibilika kwaye ukupholisa ngokukhawuleza kwezinto nezimbiwa, ebangela ukuba kusekwe izinto amorphous. Glass kunokuba eyenziweyo (ezenziwe ngabantu, ngamanye amaxesha ibizwa ngokuba Cola) okanye ngaphezulu kunqabile, umzekelo zendalo, obsidian (iglasi mlilo), tektites (wacinga ukuba iimveliso splash meteoric)
inyengane
lenyengane kukukhanya ezinemibala, ontlakantlaka-tofo imabhuli izifaka iliwa yenziwe ngeasidi Quartz, feldspar kunye mica
sibophe ukukhula
bands khaphu kwaye omnyama imigca ethe ngqo kwi engile alandela umzekelo noshowo iiminerali
umkhwa
imilo iimpawu apho ngezimbiwa ngokuqhelekileyo kwenzeka. Mkhwa ibandakanya kungekuphela nje ifomu lwangaphandle ngokuqhelekileyo eyamkelwe iiminerali kodwa iziphumo kumphezulu eqhelekileyo kwakunye
Hackly
ndibone ukwaphuka
Halo ukubandakanywa
akhazimlayo ukubandakanywa engqongwe (s) ophuke uxinezeleko. Ezi kwakhona khangela ngathi ibhabhathane kunye amaphiko amabini yikristale ziquka oluvele (leyo edla Zircon)
ukuqina
Ubulukhuni ngamandla esimbiwa kufuneka sixhathise ukukrwempa (lingonakali). Jonga kwakhona isikali sika-Moh
ephilisa iintanda
waphilisa iintanda (ukucandeka okanye cleavages) apho ulwelo bangena ikhefu kunye yikristale wakhula kunye. Ngokufuthi iinxalenye kulwelo zisamiliseleke kwi nemingxuma kunye namajelo ebangela feathery okanye womwe-ezifana Iipateni (ngamanye amaxesha intsimbi-odyojwe)
Hue
umbala ubhekisa kwigama lombala ngokwawo: ucoceko olubonakalayo olubomvu, orenji, tyheli, luhlaza, luhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, violet kunye nokwahluka kwezi. I-Hue ikwabhekisa kwimvakalelo emfusa (phakathi kobomvu kunye no-violet), ongafumanekiyo kwilanga
wobushushu
namawa ebekwe phantsi, ngokuqhelekileyo kwezi zigaba yokugqibela yokudityaniswa oluntabamlilo ukusuka iziqina izityebi ngamanzi kunye nezinye iigesi. Imithambo wobushushu kwezimbiwa isityebi izisombululo lokucoca ngapha izikhewu kunye iingxondorha ludaka kunye nefom yikristale nemingxuma emgceni eweni
Idiochromatic
xa element leenguqu yinto abakhoyo ebalulekileyo eziphathekayo gem, izinto gem na idiochromatic (idio = ukuzeyisa, Chroma = umbala)
cell ukuntywiliselwa
cell iglasi encinane equlethe ulwelo ezifanelekileyo. Umgaqo ngasemva usebenzisa kwiseli emanzini ukuba isalathisi refractive kulwelo ukuba ilitye, kokukhona kuya kuba lula ukubona ilitye. Phantse naluphi na ulwelo ezingenambala, nokuba ngamanzi, ndinqumle phantsi komhlaba bokubonisa, uze wenze inclusions ukubukela lula kakhulu
Endaweni yokuhlala
izinto kwadityanwa indawo apho yaqala kwasekwa okanye idiphozithwe kuthiwa kufunyanwa behleli (ngokoqobo endaweni)
ukubandakanywa
elide jikelele nasiphi na isiphene okanye isitenxo ngaphakathi gem. Inclusions zahlulwe iintlobo ezintathu ezahlukeneyo: eqinileyo-zombini crystalline (umzekelo, Zircon kwi nesafire) okanye non-crystalline (umzekelo, iglasi zendalo peridot) abenzekayo. Nemingxuma-ezi Ungamisela ngexesha lokukhula umkhosi GEMS (inclusions eziziiprayimari), okanye emva koko (inclusions eziziisekondari). Nokuba hlobo ukuze ndizaliswe nayiphi indibanisela ulwelo, igesi okanye eqinileyo. Abo izigaba ezibini nangaphezulu sathiwa multiphase. Ukukhula iziganeko-umbala lwemida nokubandakanya bobabini imizekelo bemimangaliso yokukhula
Infrared
iindlela obubomvurha ngezantsi ebomvu kwaye oku uluhlu imitha iqala wavelengths ukuba akukho ngaphezu 700nm bombala obomvu. imitha Infrared yaziwa jikelele ngokuba ubushushu kuba uvelisa sekuziveni onobubele xa wabetha ngokuqakatha yethu
Ungenelelo
apho imitha ezimbini behamba endleleni efanayo, kodwa ngaphandle isigaba (inqwanqwa), anikane aphazamisane omnye nomnye ebangela nokuba ukuphela iyonke yokukhanya okanye pre-nokuvelela enye okanye ngaphezulu imibala
amanani Ukuphazamisa
ezi ziphumo woqondo zayibonayo izimbiwa kabini refractive igqalwa ngokusebenzisa ubuso ngaxeshanye kwi convergent umqadi yokukhanya mihla. Baza kukwazi ulwazi malunga kwembalo amatye
twins Interpenetrant
uhlobo akhazimlayo yokuthungelana apho abantu ababini ukuze ikhule ndawonye ukuba kuyabonakala ukuba ibingenakungeneka omnye komnye (rhoqo ukuvelisa umnqamlezo okanye inkwenkwezi amatye)
Iridescence
iridescence okanye umdlalo ngemibala ichaza umbala okanye uthotho imibala eziveliswa uphazamiseko okanye umgca xa ukukhanya lubonakala mhlawumbi bhanyabhanya ezicekethekileyo okanye isakhiwo obubodwa yihakinto anqabileyo
indawo Isomorphous
endaweni enye imichiza element omnye ke valency efanayo ukwakhiwa kwemichiza. Oku kuphumela yokungafani ngokubanzi zobumnini emzimbeni samalungu thotho. Valency: kwe michiza akumila kunye radius ionic
Isotropic
ukubona imingxunya refractive
Keshi neeperile nesiphucukileyo
Iiparele zamanzi amdaka ezingenzanga nucleated ezenza imollusk xa ibuyiselwa emanzini emva kokususwa kwesityalo seeperile ezingenantsingiselo. Oku akufuneki kubhidaniswe nembewu yeepea zaselwandle ezihlala zincinci kakhulu. Amanzi amatsha `keshi 'abizwa njalo ngokuba nawo akakhuliswanga kwinyukliya engeyiyo. Ngamanye amaxesha kubhekiswa njengeeperile 'ezingenambewu' ukwenza umahluko kunye ne-non-nucleated. Jonga kwakhona iiparele zeBiwa
neeperile Keshi (elwandle)
imbewu yaseJapan ibiza iiparele `keshi '(poppies). Umbutho apha uphakathi kobukhulu obuncinci bembewu yepoppy kunye neeperile ezincinci ezenziwe ngokwendalo
Konoscope
indawo polariscope ifakelwe kokuba zihlalutywe ngamandla actions leyo inceda lula zokubonwa amanani uphazamiseko
inclusions Lamellae
okubangelwa ukubotshwa polysynthetic. Angavela njengoko siyabamfamekisa okanye ngaphaya iintlanzi-umgca. Basenokuba nako kubonakala ngokuhlanganisana engile (umzekelo, kwi Corundum apho kudibana imiyalelo)
Imihlaba Lateritic
izinto emhlabeni (kwenziwa iziqwenga iliwa nezihluma) apho ikakhulu ethatyathwe basait ibolile (a olungisiweyo iliwa entle mnyama mlilo zizityebi ngentsimbi nezinki, nesivulelekileyo kakhulu iziphumo ziimozulu imichiza kwimozulu yetropiki)
Luminescence
Ixesha eliqhelekileyo lokukhutshwa kokukhanya okubandayo okubonakalayo 'xa kufunyanwa amandla entsalela ngohlobo oluthile okanye kwenye. Imigaqo emihlanu yeziganeko ezikhanyayo zezi: i-chemi-luminescence (isiphumo sokutshintsha kwemichiza), i-tribo-luminescence (eveliswe kukukhuhlana), i-thermo-luminescence (eveliswe bubushushu), ifoto¬luminescence (eveliswa yimitha ebonakalayo / engabonakaliyo yamandla aphezulu / amafutshane wavelength) kunye ne-cathodoluminescence (iziphumo zokonwaba ngomqadi we-elektroni kwigumbi elingena)
ayenechaphothi
ayenechaphothi linani nomgangatho ukukhanya lubonakala ukusuka kumphezulu ilitye. La magama alandelayo asetyenziswe ukuchaza khanuki gemstone: ebuntsimbi: inkazimlo eliphezulu oboniswe izimbiwa ebuntsimbi mfiliba. adamantine: umphezulu reflectivity eliphezulu. vitreous: inkazimlo iglasi-ngathi awayedla isininzi ubuncwane. emnandi: inkazimlo obabuthandwa nentlaka (ezithambileyo kunye RI libya). anencindi: phantse Matte umphezulu (ngamanye amaxesha kuthiwa kutyetyiswa). kutyetyiswa: olunamafutha kancinane ekhangela ngenxa ukusasazeka zokukhanya umphezulu microscopically rough. ubaxo: zisakhazimla ngaperile / iperile unina-of-. silky: inkazimlo uboya isilika
Mabe (nesiphucukileyo) neeperile
neeperile zeeblista nesiphucukileyo edityanisiweyo apho kwinucleus original lisusiwe kwaza endaweni amaso amancinane samente, kwaye isiqwenga amajukujuku abusazinge lweenkobe ye-iperile qhiwu noseko lwalo, ukuba zizobandakanya indawo ningaswele nacre
iziqina
etyhidiweyo (ulwelo) iliwa
oluthambileyo
iindlela oluthambileyo ukuba esikwaziyo lithe landiswa okanye iphenjelelwa ukumbetha ngehamile okanye xi labaqengqeleki
Man-ezenziwe
imveliso eyenziwe ngumntu Ngokwengcaciso yenye ethe zadityaniswa elebhu. (Ukuba nokulungelelanisa na ukuba kunye okanye ukudibanisa izinto opheleleyo leqela). Isiphetho inokuba gemstone eyenziwayo (oko kukuthi, umntu lowo abe ngumphelelisi zendalo) okanye gemstone eyenziweyo (oko kukuthi, umntu ukuba akukho umlingani zendalo)
Kuku
elide kusetyenziswa ukuchaza izinto leyo anazo isakhiwo article internai kukho njengekristale, kodwa alubonisi ifomu yangaphandle zejometri. Oku kubunjwa iiyunithi yikristale nye (umzekelo, wesuka Quartz) okanye ngaphezulu (umzekelo, jadeite)
Mettalic
ukubona inkazimlo
Metamict
igama ezisetyenziselwa izinto ethe wahlaselwa ikhefu-phantsi crystalline ukuya urhulumente ngokuyinxenye amorphous; eqhelekileyo kwizimbiwa equlathe radioactive materials (umzekelo, uhlobo libya Zircon)
ilitye
(ilitye ngokoqobo, watshintsha ekwimo) namawa ayilwa kwamatye pre-ezikhoyo ikakhulu yi sisenzo soxinzelelo, ubushushu kunye / okanye nokwaziswa imichiza olutsha
eqatywe Metric (oka)
I-carat enye yeetriki = isinye kwisihlanu segram (0.20gr) okanye i-200 milligrams (mg). I-carat metric iyunithi yobunzima bamatye anqabileyo kunye neeperile ezicwangcisiweyo. Ubunzima buchazwa kwiindawo ezimbini zokugqibela kwaye iidesimali zihlala zibizwa ngokukhululekileyo 'ngamanqaku', okt 1 metric carat = 100 Amanqaku
imakroskopu
isixhobo enombala eyenziwa indibanisela eneeglasi uvelisa umfanekiso amhlonela ngayo into. Eminye imisebenzi ebalulekileyo ngakumbi magnification: yokufunda ukubandakanywa (ezendalo vs. ngumntu; indlela ukuyilwa / akhazimlayo nokukhula); yoviwo komhlaba (umgangatho aqingqiweyo (macala), IsiPolish (iimeko iinkalo, firemarks); ukubonwa amatye ezijongeneyo; ukuchongwa unyango eyenziweyo; ukubona ukuba sesichengeni umonakalo (umzekelo, ubukho eyaphukileyo kunye / okanye cleavage); ukubona kabini (SR vs .S, nam kubonisa isixa birefringence)
Mineral
ngezimbiwa na ioli yokwemvelo ezingaphiliyo ukuba sisincoko imichiza kunye neepropati ezibonakalayo leyo rhoqo phakathi kwemida elimxinwa. Ukwakhiwa kwayo Kudla ezikrelekrele
ukukhanya Monochromatic
ukukhanya monochromatic na ukukhanya neembono enye kuphela. Ukukhanya umgangatho yellow monochromatic kusetyenziswa imilinganiselo Refractometer lithatyathwe isibane sodium umphunga. Oku ngenene iquka imigca emibini ngokusondeleyo kakhulu bebekwe amadlozi, ixabiso ogama kuthetha na 589.3nm
inclusions Multiphase
inclusions ezinokuba ulwelo kunye negesi kunye / okanye crystals
Nacre
indawo secretion eveliswe ingubo enkulu kwezinye izilwanyana neyenza esicwangciswe iridescent bobabini perile kunye umphezulu nonina-of-iperile ngaphakathi iqokobhe lemollusk. Nacre ibandakanya carbonate ezikrelekrele zekalika kunye nezinto eziphilayo ekuthiwa conchiolin
Namometers (NM)
iyunithi yokulinganisa ngenxa wavelengths elifutshane malumga yezixhobo (zamandla). 1 nanometer = 1 millioneth yinxalenye eemilimitha (1 / 1,000,000 NM) umzekelo, ukukhanya ebonakalayo uwela phakathi 700nm (ebomvu) kwaye 400nm (bubomvu)
cut Native
elide zisetyenziselwa isimbo Ukusebznisa abakhethelwe ubuninzi ukugcinwa ubunzima. Ezi ngamatye aqingqiweyo elingqokolayo paviliyoni ezinkulu rhoqo kufuna
recutting ukuba bafikelele ibathwana ngcono
yikristale elibi
cavities ngaphakathi gem ukuba imilo crystalline. Ezi nemingxuma zadalwa xa kwiindawo ezithile ukukhula ngokukhawuleza ngaphezu kwezinye iindawo, yenza uze ufake void okanye apho yikristale ukubandakanywa original uchithiwe phandle (liquid negative esoloko ikhaphukhaphu umkhosi phantsi darkfield ukhanyiso)
ukubandakanywa elibi
okufakwe ngokuwanyusa gesi okanye engamanzi zizaliswe okanye iqulathe ukubandakanywa encinane esiqinileyo (bona yikristale kwakhona negative)
ukufunda elibi
ukuba ilitye phantsi uvavanyo phezu refractometer ithe R.1 ngaphezu uluhlu kwisixhobo, akukho ngohlangothi isithunzi bubonakele (ngaphandle kwalowo ulwelo zoqhagamshelwano)
Non-ezikrelekrele
iiminerali kunye nezinye izinto kuthiwa engenalucalu-crystalline okanye amorphous (ngokoqobo, ngaphandle form) xa Jack zilungelelene isakhiwo internai elichazwayo kunye nenkangeleko sangaphandle geometrically rhoqo (umzekelo, le michiza nezimbiwa, yihakinto kunye iglasi, kwakunye nezinto eziphilayo)
ukukhanya Non-ezimhlophe
ukukhanya non-mhlophe (oko kukuthi, nezabeBala) luchazwa ngokwemiqathango hue yayo (oko kukuthi, umbala ngamaza yayo pre-lubalaseleyo), bantu (ubunzulu okanye amandla umbala lubalaseleyo) kunye nethoni (umthunzi-ukukhanya ukuba mnyama)
eqhelekileyo
kwi oganikhi engile cwci kukho umlinganiselo kwiinkqubo eziqhelekileyo, ngumgca osengqondweni ezotywe xande (90 kwindawo apho ray wasibetha umphezulu hayi ukusuka kumphezulu ngokwayo
axis bafakele
kwicala le Uphazamiso enye ngaphakathi yikristale ngenye ngokuphindwe refractive yaziwa ngokuba axis optic
uphawu optic
ukubona indalo optic
Optic nani nqanaba
anomhlaba iglasi efakelwe nentonga mfutshane leyo isebenza kokuba zihlalutywe kwelisa ukunceda ukuzimisela iipateni uphazamiseko zisabonakala kukho axis optic eziphathekayo anisotropic
optic indalo
uhlobo optic we ngezimbiwa: izimbiwa yahlulwe (uphawu optic) uniaxial, biaxial kunye isotropic. izimbiwa Uniaxial kwaye biaxial ukuba yahlulwe ngokongezelelweyo ukuba abo ezo optically HIV kunye nabo apho awunayo optically (uphawu optic)
uphawu optic
ukubona indalo optic
mninzi Optical
mninzi enombala na ipropati entsonkothileyo leyo demonstates ngokwalo e kuyehla bokukhanya. (Jonga kwakhona Uphazamiso)
iimveliso organic
iimveliso organic abo nezinto eziveliswa umsebenzi eziphilayo
YaseMpuma (ngaperile)
kumphezulu sibengezela iridescent ngaperile gem nonina-of-perile. Oku kubangelwa nokugxuphuleka kukhanya bhanya obhityileyo (iipleyiti obhityileyo umaleko nacreous) kunye umgca ukusuka kungqameko omhle iipleyiti
neeperile Oriental
Ukusetyenziswa kweli gama luvumeleke echaza neeperile zendalo ezifumaneka Iimollusk amanzi Kuyile Фантастичний ye Gulf. Nangona kunjalo, oku kube ngokwesiko urhwebo jikelele ngakumbi neeperile yendalo eklasini cwci ndifuze njengoko oriental
okugqibela
ekwahlukaneni yi ukophuka okwenzeka ecaleni moya yobuthathaka, kunokuba ecaleni moya enxuseneyo nomkhenkce ubuso, okanye kunokwenzeka
yikristale kobuso, njengoko kwi cleavage (oko eyaziwa ngokuba cleavage bobuxoki)
Pearl ingqolowa
ukhozo pearl elicandelo umgangatho iperile zalishumi 1 ingqolowa = 0.25 eqatywe (1 oka = 4grains)
neeperile
neeperile ezi kwemvelo seentuku ngempazamo kwaye ngaphandle kokusebenzisa nayiphi arhente yoluntu, esembindini emollusk. Aquka kwinto ephilayo (a scleroprotein ogama conchiolin) kwaye ngecalcium carbonate (ngokuqhelekileyo ngokohlobo aragonite) zicwangciswe omaleko concentric, welaphu leyo kakhulu nacreous
Pearly
ukubona inkazimlo
Pegmatites
imabhuli neliwa inzuzo ontlakantlaka kudla equlathe izimbiwa ezinqabileyo, kuquka liquid amakhulu anqabileyo (umzekelo, nekrizolite, chrysoberyl, feldspar, Quartz, spessartite garnet)
semgceni
semgceni na isiphumo ulibaziseko rescence (oko kukuthi, loo nto yinto nje obungephi). Yeyona ukukhutshwa waqhubeka yokukhanya ebonakala emva umthombo kwimitha meleza kuphelile
Photoluminescence
photoluminescence sisigama oludityanelweyo rescence kunye semgceni. Oku isiphumo okuboniswa izinto ezithile ukuvelisa ukukhanya wabonakala kukufunyanwa ezimfutshane ngamaza ngemitha (umzekelo, radiations zikazibuthe kwi zibonakale (blue), uzuba kunye x-reyi yinxalenye malumga)
Pinpoints
amasuntswana amancinane sabufumana inclusions. Xa ezi zinto zikhoyo amanani amakhulu ukuze ingachazwa njengelifu kunye elubala amatye lusenokungalungiseki
nobambe iidipozithi
nobambe iidipozithi luqulathe kumphezulu zoqhaphelo kwezimbiwa ezixabisekileyo womxhuzulane high ezithile (ixesha elide) eziye kwenziwa ngo yemozulu eliweni umzali, kwiimeko ezininzi, emva koko ihanjiswa emithonjeni okanye intshukumo yamaza
Womgca macala
enye yezinto ezifunekayo macala; moya-macala lo moya wentelekelelo o wahlula umzimba ibe ngamaqela amabini ukuze inxalenye ngamnye olubonakaliswe (isipili) umfanekiso kwelinye (oko kukuthi, inxenye nganye ngqo uguqulo asebenzisana ngayo nabanye)
iiplastiki
ligama jikelele inani kwezinto eziphilayo ezenziwe (ngokuqhelekileyo ngePolymer esekelwe resin) nabanako nwe bekayo okanye ukubunjwa ubushushu kunye / okanye uxinzelelo
Dlala imibala
adlala elide umbala ichaza uthotho imibala zayibonayo ukukhanya lubonakala ukusuka bhanyabhanya ezicekethekileyo okanye ukusuka kwisinye isakhiwo Ilibele-injengayo yihakinto anqabileyo. Kokuba lukhutshwe umgca (njengokutyhoboza phezulu ukukhanya emhlophe ngokwemibala zayo icandelo njengokuba ukukhanya edlula emngxunyeni elincinane) apho luhlobo ezizodwa zokuphazamisana sokukhanya
Pleochroism
pleochroism (ngokoqobo, abantu abaninzi ezinemibala) ligama jikelele kusetyenziswa ukuchaza imibala eyahlukileyo lwalatha leyo kunokubonwa ngamatye ezithile ezinemibala owahlukanisa ukukhanya (oko kukuthi, abo ngokuphindwe refracting) ngenxa yabo isakhiwo nomkhenkce sangaphakathi. Oku kuquka dichroism (ezimibala mibini) kunye trichroism (bebala ezintathu)
Polariscope
le polariscope kukho isixhobo ebandakanya iiyunithi ezimbini kwimveliso moya yintiyo ukukhanya amalungiselelo kunye nqanaba ejikelezayo phakathi kwabo. Iimvavanyo isixhobo kuphela ukuba okanye hayi mbandela zibangele okanye ithintelwa refractive
abasabela Polariscope
imingxunya refractive-izinto uhlala mnyama lonke 360 ° naye. Ukuba umbandela liphantsi koxinzelelo internai ukuze ukubonisa anomalous (lobuxoki) Uphazamiso kabini (ADR), ngokuqhelekileyo ngokohlobo bands esimfaneleko okanye amabala ezitenxileyo. Double refractive-amatye liqhephuka yikristale enye abaphathiswe ezine yokukhanya kunye nezikhundla ezine ezimnyama. nganisa ezikrelekrele okanye izinto DR kakhulu zibandakanywe kubonakale ukukhanya cwci lonke 360 ° naye. nani-in Ungenelelo kwimeko yeencwadi nezibonelelo DR, ukuba iimeko tye kunye nani uphazamiseko kuphawuliwe, kunokwenzeka kwakhona ukuqinisekisa ukuba ilitye uniaxial okanye biaxial. (Uphawu-kanye optic wafumana inani uphazamiseko, ke ngoko ukuba kuqinisekiswe ukuba ngaba ilitye unayo okanye awunayo ngoncedo
iipleyiti isincedisi zinikwa ngokukodwa loo njongo)
Polycrystalline
iiminerali leyo yesixa zeekristali ezincinane sathiwa polycrystalline. Ezi liquid ezincinane kunokubonwa usebenzisa magnification, kwaye ngamanye amaxesha neliso kuphela (umzekelo, phantse jadeite cwci jade)
twins Polysynthetic
ukubona amawele lammelar
Potch (yihakinto efanayo)
izinto milky ningaswele lokudlala ibala, emalungu amanqanaba dust sobungakanani yokungalingani ngaloo ibangela ukukhanya ukuba saa kunokuba diffracted
inclusions Protogenetic
Izinto ezazifakwe ngaphambili: ezazikhona ngaphambi kokuba ikristale yomamkeli iqale ukubumba kwaye yayifunxiwe 'ilungile yenziwe' kule yokugqibela (umz., amasuntswana aqinileyo kunye namakristali amancinci. Zithanda ukuba zisasazwe ngokungaqhelekanga kuyo yonke indawo kwaye kunqabile ukuba zihambelane nekristale ulwakhiwo
Pseudomorph
i-pseudomorph (ifom engeyiyo) yiminerali ethatha ubume (imilo) yesinye isimbiwa (okanye into ephilayo) ngenxa yobushushu kunye / okanye uxinzelelo okanye inkqubo yemichiza, umzekelo, iliso lengwe (ukutshintshwa kwe-quartz kwe-crocidolite, i-asbestos mineral); i-agate yamaplanga (indawo ye-quartz yomthi)
ingcingane
Ukubonakaliswa kukubuya komphezulu (nokuba kungaphakathi okanye ngaphandle) kokunye ukukhanya okuwela phezu komphezulu. Jonga neMithetho kaSnell
Uphazamiso
Ukuphinda kubonakalise utshintsho kwicala apho ukukhanya kuhamba khona xa kugqitha ukusuka kwimithombo yeendaba ukuya kwenye yobuninzi boxinaniso lwamehlo (ngaphandle kwaxa kugadla umphezulu oqhelekileyo kwimithombo yeendaba ezimbini kwi-90 °). Njengoko ukukhanya kudlula ukusuka kunqabile ukuya kwindawo yokuxinana (umz., Ukusuka emoyeni uye elityeni) ijonge kwinto yesiqhelo, ngokuchaseneyo njengoko isuka kwindawo exineneyo iye kwindawo enqabileyo ityhubele kude yesiqhelo. Ubuninzi be-Optical yipropathi entsonkothileyo ezibonisa ukuthoba ukukhanya. Jonga neMithetho kaSnell
index Refractive (RI)
le RI kukho ratio elula ngokuthelekisa isantya ukukhanya umoya isantya ukukhanya eliphakathi elinikiweyo. Umgangatho kusetyenziswa umlinganiselo index refractive na umoya (ngokungqongqo iflaski); utsho RI yomoya luthathwa 1.00
Metamorphic Regional
le recrystallization okubhalwe bezimbiwa zeengxondorha pre-akhoyo ukunyuka kwamazinga obushushu (700 ° -2000 ° C) phantsi koxinzelelo
mninzi Relative
Khangela womxhuzulane ezithile (SG)
wavelengths elishiyekileyo
wavelengths oshiyekileyo abo wavelengths kwelifunekayo umbandela ezidibanisa ukuba asinike umbala perc-eived yento
emnandi
jonga inkazimlo
iliwa
Iliwa ibandakanya amasuntswana yezimbiwa ezithe ikhule okanye ngesamente ngokuthi inkqubo yemichiza okanye luqiniswe kunye lilanga okanye uxinzelelo
Indlela epholileyo
ibhekisa umgangatho okanye ubunzulu umbala zayibonayo sithi brilliancy samatye esinamacala ngaphaya
Schiller
bona sibengezela
Scintillation
ibengezela; ukuphana kucinywa, ukukhanya ezimfutshane eliqaqambileyo ukukhanya
Sectile
sectile ibhekisa izinto ulwenzeko kokuba abezichubile yi imela egudileyo aqingqiweyo
ludaka
ezo zenziwe ngokwakhiwa kwezinto (iintlenga) ezaqala ngokwaphuka ngokwasemzimbeni nangokwamachiza kwamatye awayesele ekhona emhlabeni
neeperile Seed
neeperile ezincinane kakhulu (ngaphantsi v. ingqolowa / nama. 2mm) ukuba ngokwendalo kwasekwa kwithishu ezithambileyo lemollusk ngenxa ekuhlaselweni njengentlabathi, amaqanda ezidadayo ivideo, gazi okanye namanye amaqumrhu amazwe. neeperile imbewu zikholisa irregular kwaye iflethi, kodwa xa zifumaneka abo ngeenxa zonke ezinqabileyo, ngamaqashiso ngenxa ukusetyenziswa iimpahla. Bona kwakhona neeperile Keshi
nokufunxwa kukhetha
nokufunxwa yokukhetha lokukhanya ngokucinezela okanye nokufunxwa wavelengths ezithile e ku pa ekukhanyeni ngokusebenzisa into okanye iboniswe off umphezulu waso. Umbala iziphumo zokufunda ukususela eseleyo (intsalela) wavelengths ezirhec iliso
Taylor (okanye Schiller)
sibengezela yi ubukhazikhazi okanye uqukuqelo (saa) ukusebenza nelokucinga okubangelwa ukukhanya ukuba kubonakala ukusuka inclusions okanye iimpawu ukwakhiwa lilitye. Igama elithi iquka chatoyancy, asterism, adularescence, aventurescence, opalescence, iridescence (labrodrescence nomdlalo imibala in yihakinto)
Isilika (ufakwe)
uthotho kweenaliti ngaxeshanye (rutile rhoqo)
refractive enye
nezaziwa isotropic. izimbiwa leyo ukubonisa iimpawu ezifanayo woqondo kumacala cwci (umzekelo, amatye kwinkqubo cubic kunye nezinto amorphous)
Laws Snell ngayo Uphazamiso
xa ray ukukhanya udlula komnye eliphakathi ukuya kwenye kukho ratio article phakathi sine ye engile izehlo kwaye i sine ye engile Uphazamiso. I-ray siganeko, ray refracted kwaye eqhelekileyo (kwindawo izehlo) zezona cwci kwi moya mnye. Umlinganiselo rhoqo phakathi engile izehlo kunye Uphazamiso nayiphi eendaba amabini zoqhagamshelwano enombala wabizwa Snell isalathisi refractive (RI)
neeperile South Sea
neeperile nesiphucukileyo ngxilimbela, kwizixeko isilivere-ixela iimbatyisi iperile kunye sangqa 12 okanye 16mm. Ezi neeperile emhlophe enkulu kwamenza igama South Sea kuba ekuqaleni eveliswe yaseJapan in Microne-sia kunye Indonesia. Namhlanje ezi neeperile zisoloko ngaphezulu ziveliswa Australia Burma, kunye Indonesia, kwiPhilippines, Papua New Guinea Thailand njengoko imithombo ebalulekileyo kangako. Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku akukho kuye ingqokelela elibe nempumelelo ayitshicele ye ngembaza iperile isilivere-ixela, nto leyo ithetha ukuba nangoncedo iimbatyisi unina sinqongophele kwaye amaxabiso ngokufanelekileyo aphezulu
womxhuzulane ezithile (SG)
Ubunzima be-SG okanye ubuninzi bezinto ezibonakalayo ngumlinganiselo phakathi kobunzima bento kunye nobunzima bomthamo olinganayo wamanzi acocekileyo kwi-4 ° C (ubuninzi bamanzi) kunye noxinzelelo oluqhelekileyo lomoya. I-SG inxulumene nokwenziwa kwemichiza yemathiriyeli kunye nokudibana phakathi kweatom (ngokwenyani, ayichaphazelwa kuphela bubunzima beatom yamacandelo ngamacandelo kodwa kwanendlela ezibekwa ngayo iiathom)
Spectroscope
isixhobo esithi sohlule kwavela ukukhanya zibe wavelengths alo okanye imibala spectrum ngokusebenzisa bemilo okanye umgca lwaso. Lo spectroscope sikuvumela ukuba ubone zigaba ezithile (imigca okanye bands) okanye imimandla (nokufunxwa ngokubanzi) bokukhanya ezimhlophe anokufunxwa gemstone ngokuthi kwaphelisa okanye Esasaza wavelengths lentsalela ethe wadluliselwa okanye kubonakala ukusuka ilitye phantsi uvavanyo (hayi Ail matye abonisa spectrum hayi cwci spectrums ezibonwayo iingxaki kodwa nokufunxwa bands kusenokubonisa arhente imibala okanye ubukho izinto ezithile)
Splintery
ndibone ukwaphuka
Symmetry
macala ibhekisa rhoqo okanye intsalela imilo gem kwi kokubini ubuso-isikhundla kunye neprofayle
inclusions Syngenetic
inclusions wayephila ebandakanya izinto ezithe zanikezelwa ngexesha elinye umkhosi crystai (umzekelo, izinto eziqinileyo izimbiwa; ulwelo kwi nemingxuma neentanda ephilisa; bands lommandla; inclusions ulwelo;. imizila zokukhula ezifana nombala yocando kunye nokusekwa amawele Kukho rhoqo kukho wayalela intergrowth phakathi inclusions syngenetic esilundwendwe yikristale ukuze ezimbini ukuze athwale ulwalamano lwesakhiwo ilawulwa yimithetho crystallographic
akude eyenziwayo
imveliso eyenziweyo na imichiza ukwakhiwa mnye, isakhiwo elichazwayo kunye neempawu zomzimba unguwabo yayo yendalo (umzekelo, iemeraldi eyenziwayo, Corundum eyenziwayo, njalo njalo)
ubenokuqina
ubenokuqina okanye Ukomelela na uxhathiso lilitye yokuphelisa okanye nefracturing. Kubhaliwe enxulumene izimbiwa ukukwazi ukufunxa izitha ngaphandle ukuphazamiseka isakhiwo internai. Ngokwemiqathango wadibana kule nkalo zibandakanya nkum sectile, ibhetyebhetye, luyaguquguquka kwaye elastic
bhanya Thin
zijongwa phantsi ukukhanya eboniswe ezi bhanya ezingcakacileyo kuba imbonakalo iridescent awayedla umaleko obhityileyo kweoli kwamanzi okanye kumphezulu embejembeje we bubble isepha
isigaba ezintathu ukubandakanywa
umngxuma wamanzi-ezaliswe equlethe kwiqamza kunye njengekristale
ilizwi
ithoni ibhekisa yesandi isizalwane okanye ubumnyama waqonda (nokuba lubhelu okanye emhlophe abamnyama)
Iyonke nelokucinga yangaphakathi
ukucingisisa yangaphakathi iyonke kwenzeka apho, ray agqitha ukukhanya ukusuka azike ukuya eliphakathi mpawu kwi-engile ngaphezu angle emandundu wabuyela eliphakathi azike apho uwugcinayo imithetho bokubonisa
ubulushica
ukubona ubenokuqina
izinto Transition
igama lisetyenziswa neempawu ezithile ebuntsimbi leyo ngenxa isakhiwo yabo ngokweathom, legalelo ukufakwa angakholelwa ukukhanya ngamatye idiochromatic kunye allochromatic. Bona ikhrom, icobalt, ubhedu, nevanadium, manganese, intsimbi, nickel kunye titanium
hambisa
Kwathi (umzekelo, ukukhanya) ukusuka kwenye eliphakathi ukuya kwelinye; ukuba ikhuphe (umzekelo, umqondiso) okanye thumela (e..g., ukusuka komnye umntu ukuya kwenye)
elubala
inkululeko ngayo ukukhanya kudlule okanye dlu ilitye. Zidanga ezahlukeneyo elubala inikwa: ngaphaya (TP) -oko into ecacileyo ibonisa kwaye ibizela umthamo omncinane ukukhanya leyo sazo phezu kwayo, kodwa ukwavumela inkoliso ukuba adlule. Into zijongwe ilitye kubonakala ecacileyo kunye neya-. Sub-ngaphaya (S-TP) -oko umba ukukhanya dlu ilitye, kodwa umphandle into kwelinye icala ilitye ayikwazi zizakubalulwa. Sub-engangenisi (S-TL) efundwayo kuphela isixa esincinci kakhulu ukukhanya kudlula gem emiphethweni ezibhityileyo. Dlula Kuluhlu (0) -ail kokukhanya ewa into mfiliba kusenokuqhutywa iboniswe okanye efunda. Akukho ukukhanya idlula umbandela, nokuba ezinemiphetho ezibhityileyo.
ngokwekhompyutha ukubandakanywa
idumbe-ngumtshangatshangiso okanye roiled isiphumo-wisps ujikelezise kombala
Twin akhazimlayo
njengekristale amawele na njengekristale elakhiwe ziziqingatha ezibini yikristale enye okanye liquid ezimbini okanye ngaphezulu iintlobo mnye abe nolwalamano ngqo crystallographic omnye komnye ndizityebisile kunye ngendlela ulingano (jonga amawele zoqhagamshelwano namawele interpenetrant)
isigaba Two ukubandakanywa
umngxuma wamanzi-ezaliswe equlethe kwiqamza okanye njengekristale
Yeultraviolet (UV)
zemitha kuthetha ngaphaya ngemisonto. Le uluhlu imitha iqala wavelengths ukuba ezimfutshane ngaphezu 400nm lokukhanya ngemisonto
amatye Uniaxial
kwiinkqubo ezinamacala amathandathu, i-trigonal kunye ne-tetragonal crystal system kukho enye ye-optic axis (ulwalathiso lwe-refraction eyodwa): iiminerali ezi zezi nkqubo zaziwa njenge-uniaxial (kumatye angaxutywanga i-axis ye-optic iyahambelana nenqwanqwa 'c' le-axis)
cell Unit
iyunithi yeseli lwesakhiwo yikristale leyo inxalenye incinane njengekristale leyo nangoku ke enayo kwiipropati uphawu yikristale ebizwa iseli unit. Ngendlela apho iiseli unit zifunjwe ngemvelo unina umisa imbonakalo yangaphandle yikristale
ukubandakanywa Veil
ukubona iintsiba ukubandakanywa
ukukhanya ebonakalayo
bokukhanya luhlobo zamandla leyo ekuchithekeni sikwazi ukubona. Nayiphi ngamaza imitha zikazibuthe ukuba malunga phakathi 400nm kwaye 700nm iyabonakala ukuba iliso lwabantu njengokuba ukukhanya
Vitreous
ukubona inkazimlo
ngamaza
indawo ngamaza uchazwa umgama phakathi iincopho ezimbini ezilandelelanayo ukuba yomtshangatshangiso
anencindi
ukubona inkazimlo
ukukhanya White
mhlophe (ukukhanya mixed) ubunjwe Yenza umxube nama ngokulinganayo yonke imibala okanye wavelengths ezenza ebonakalayo (bomvu, orenji, omthubi, oluhlaza, nemisonto emsi). Umbala ukukhanya iyahluka kunye sixhomekeke ngamaza. amaza Red kuba wavelengths elide (700 + NM) yaye oku lupholile ngokusebenzisa macala ngemisonto wavelengths, a ne imfutshane (400nm-malunga 1 / 4 ubude umtha ezibomvu)
ifestile
ekhanyayo ye ukuqhutywa umbala okubangelwa ukuvuza ukukhanya esivumela imvelaphi emva litye libonakalayo (funda-zibonakale)
Zircon Halo
ukubona ukubandakanywa Halo
striae lommandla
ubone umbala bands