gem Uluhlu

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Gemology Uluhlu - Gemological Institute of Cambodia Uluhlu. Gem Uluhlu. elinqabileyo Uluhlu

neeperile abalone

neeperile anobukhazikhazi ezinemibala eveliswe inkumba univalue enokutyiwa esivulekileyo iqokobhe ezimilise indlebe-khulu ngenxa ezimibalabala wayo unina-of-iperile imigxuma. Ezi zifumaneka Melika, New Zealand kunye namanzi yaseJapan. Kunqabile bhitmephu, bona badla buhlohlwa nendlebe okanye iwindow tooth-

ukufunxa

ukuthatha (umzekelo, into) okanye angenise okanye afumane amandla zamandla (umzekelo, ukukhanya)

Absorption spectrum

nesilinganiso lwelayini ezimnyama nkqo, bands, okanye imimandla (nokufunxwa ngokubanzi), zayibonayo ukukhanya ethe wadluliselwa okanye kubonakala ukusuka gemstone iphaphatheke libe zalo ecacicleyo nasele kusetyenziswa isixhobo esifana spectroscope.

Adamantine

ukubona inkazimlo

Adularescence

uphawu sibengezela bamantshontsho-ezimhlophe okanye milky (Schiller) uqhelaniso

Allochromatic

xa element lenguqu ukho nje ekungcoleni engephi umbandela gem, loo mbandela allochromatic (Allo = ezinye; Chroma = umbala)

Alluvium

elide jikelele ezisetyenziswa ngokuqhelekileyo imali xa kobutyobo rock (esihle iidipozithi) eziye ihanjiswa elibaleka amanzi ebekwe phantsi kumsinga, emlanjeni, unogumbe iibhedi plain okanye echibini.

Amorphous

ukubona non-ezikrelekrele

Anisotropic

ukubona ngeIsta refractive

Archimedes umgaqo

Archimedes mgaqo ithi xa umzimba msizi ulwelo, ngoko injongo phezulu kulwelo emzimbeni lilingana ubunzima ulwelo abangenamakhaya. (Ukuzimisela womxhuzulane othile ngendlela zalishumi hydrostatic isekelwe lo mgaqo)

amatye Artificial

magaqa eyenziwe ngumntu ukuba akukho umlingani zendalo (umzekelo, le simulants nedayimani: titanate kwiteksti kwaye YAG)

unyango Artificial

ekwandiseni ukubonakala into ngokuthi zokufudumeza, nizikhwebule, efakwe ukumitha, zokukhanya okanye laser-wokugrumba

akude ndawonye

nayiphi gem yenziwe iinxalenye ezimbini okanye ngaphezulu sele ngesamente okanye kweni kunye ukuba ilitye elinye

Asterism

asterism na isiphumo kubonisa, ngokubanzi ezine okanye-babehlola ntandathu, imicu zilungelelaniswe okanye nemingxuma uboya kwindawo ilitye luye lwathotywa en cabochon kunye inclusions nelungiselelwe ngokunxuseneyo moya umbhinqo

Aventurescence

kubonisa ngamandla bha ukukhanya iipleyiti okanye Imihlubulo omnye yezimbiwa ziqukiwe ilitye (umzekelo, njengoko sibonile iglasi aventurine, Quartz aventurine, aventurine feldspar (Sunstone))

Ezimanyeneyo macala

omnye iingxenye macala, i-axis macala ngumgca ntekelelo ngokusebenzisa embindini njengekristale, malunga apho yikristale unako abolikisane, ukwenzela ukuba imbonakalo efanayo izihlandlo 2, 3, 4 okanye 6 kwenye kujikelezo ngokupheleleyo (ie , ubuso efanayo ubambe isikhundla efanayo, ngaphezu kanye kujikelezo ngokupheleleyo)

neeperile ezimbejembeje

igama lisetyenziswa neyeeperile, bobabini zendalo nesiphucukileyo, zeeblista okanye umjikelo,

leyo engavumelekanga imilo

lebasalt

lebasalt, yeyona ixhaphakileyo KwabBtwe imabhuli iliwa, na emnyama, iliwa ocoliweyo-tofo kakhulu zenziwe feldspar emnyama kunye pyroxene (kunye okanye ngaphandle olivine). Kukho inani ezithi zihlelwa ngokuxhomekeke phezu yokungafani texture, isakhiwo kunye nesiqulatho nezimbiwa

amatye Biaxial

kwi iinkqubo orthorhombic, monoclinic kwaye triclinic kukho ezintathu yikristale zokutyhomfa ezibude. Uphazamiso Double kuya kwenzeka kumacala amaninzi, kodwa kuya kubakho nemigca enqamleze optic (kwimiyalelo Uphazamiso enye) ukuba zahluke yokuqhelaniswa iintlobo nganye gem eyahlukileyo. neeminerali ngoweqela ezi nkqubo baziwa biaxial. (Xa inkqubo orthorhombic nezamazembe optic akathandi ngokulinganayo 'c' (iasi umgaqo nkqo), ngoxa triclinic monoclinic kwaye kungekho buhlobo ngqo yikristale ezibukhali zesinyithi.)

Birefringence

(Nezaziwa Uphazamiso kabini / DR) birefringence sisixa Uphazamiso zeli- gemstone anisotropic wavakalisa njengomohluko phakathi indices refractive ngelo yokuzahlula ubuninzi

neeperile Biwa

neeperile non-nucleated nesiphucukileyo (rhoqo mbhoxo okanye anobukhazikhazi kwimilo yaseJapan) engumlimi ngeenxa kunxweme lweChibi Biwa eJapan. Perile ezilinywa ngokufaka ngamaqhekeza amancinci yokwaleka kungena umzimba eembaza iimbaza yamanzi ezinkulu

isiphako

elide jikelele isiphako ethi ichaphazele webala gem. Ukuba nesiphako idla okubangelwa zizenzo zabantu, nokuba lo gama gem wenziwa lisikwa ngoxa kunxitywa iimpahla. Imikrwelo, wemihadi, engophiyo zezona zixhaphakileyo iintlobo eligqibeleleyo

neeperile zeeblista

neeperile ezigqunywe kwicala elinye kuphela umaleko nacreous owakhulayo ubelilingene nekukholeleka original wadibana iqokobhe lemollusk. Xa atsalwa neeperile ezinjalo, ummandla lowo wadibana iqokobhe yi angqine nacre. Ngokufanelekileyo kweli cala wamzalela ngokuqhelekileyo mpuluswa kwaye efihliweyo lingekatshoni

kunyuse

Ubulumko linani lilonke ukukhanya iboniswe ngaphakathi ukuba wabuyela iliso ukusuka elinqabileyo. Kungenjalo ukuba lungabonakaliswa njengokukhazimla (ubomi) ye gemstone njengoko kumiselwe isixa ukukhanya iboniswa emva iliso ngasemva zeenkalo ilitye

Brittleness

brittleness ichazwa njenge ubuthathaka kwindawo gemstone apho nangona lukhuni yayo, kwenza kube sengozini ngokwaphulwa, umonakalo (umzekelo, ubushushu Zircon iphathwa)

iliso Cat ngayo

ukubona chatoyancy

Center of macala

enye yezinto ezifunekayo macala, iziko macala ekhoyo xa zonke ubuso yikristale ogqibeleleyo kuchasene olungaphesheya ubuso efanayo kwelinye icala yikristale (oko kukuthi, bonke ubuso inomnye ubuso efanayo, isini kunye ngaxeshanye)

Chatoyancy

nempembelelo imbonakaliso inclusions ngaxeshanye uboya elihlenga okanye (eye ikati i-) mingxunya. I streak enye ukukhanya yavela xande ulwalathiso inclusions kwaye ibonwa ingcono phantsi kumthombo ukukhanya enye ovahedi ngamatye ngewuthe en cabochon

Chelsea umbala rater

isixhobo ebandakanya indibanisela okucoca, nto nesenziwe ukuba uvumela ezimbini kuphela amacandelo emnxinwa malumga ukuze zibonakale kuyo: le ibomvu enzulu (kufuphi 690nm) kunye eluhlaza esimthubi (kufutshane 570nm). Oku kuluncedo xa ebonisa ubukho chrome okanye loSapho in GEMS ezithile, ekufunyanisweni kwe (chrome) idayi ngamatye kunye eyahlula ezinye izinto gem evela imitations yabo eqhelekileyo. Isikhumbuzo: Sebenzisa uphawu isilumkiso kuphela. Ubungqina ixhomekeke ezinye iimvavanyo

Chromophore

(Arhente imibala). Inxalenye imolekyuli elinoxanduva umbala compound ngayo. Ke akhoyo njengoko abakhoyo sifuneka kwemichiza kukwakheka amatye idiochromatic okanye elubhorha accidentai ngamatye allochromatic

ingcaciso

ligama elisetyenziswa ukuchaza inkululeko isalamane ukusuka nasiphi na isiphene internai okanye irregularity (inclusions) kwindawo gem. Inkcazelo kwakhona iyakwandiswa ukuze iquke kumphezulu iziphene (isiphako) xa kuqwalaselwa kwibakala ecace ngayo ilitye

umbala bands

bands kalukhuni engumzekelo umbala kubonwa kumphezulu zeekristali okanye izakhiwo internai amatye (kubonise izigaba ukukhula okubangelwa ngomahluko ekhoyo amachiza, ulwelo, ubushushu, uxinzelelo nezinye izinto)

Umbala kwi GEMS

imbono olubonakalayo nabavoti apho mhlophe enokwahlulwa (bomvu, orenji, omthubi, oluhlaza, nemisonto emsi) kwakunye ukubaqhelanisa nemfusa leyo ayifumaneki kwi spectrum ilanga. Umbala ichazwa wentlaba, bantu kunye nethoni. Umbala umzimba ube gemstone ivela ukukhanya athe ngayo ibonwa kwakunye ngokuba ngenxa ukufunxeka wavelengths ezithile bokukhanya. Umbala nabo kunokubangelwa eziziintsali, ukuphazamisana wokukhanya Fluorescence

umbala socando

ucando umbala ikhule ngexesha ukukhula yikristale ngenxa azingqinelani zoqhaphelo obukuso. Iindidi ngebala (bands okanye imimandla) zidla zibonwa ukulandela ubuso yikristale ekhoyo

izinto imibala

nokufunxwa kukhetha ukukhanya ngenxa yobukho eziqalelo lotshintsho (ikhrom, icobalt, ubhedu, nevanadium, manganese, intsimbi, inickel, titanium) ngamatye idiochromatic kwaye allochromatic

indawo yokudlala

compact linentsingiselo efanayo oxandileyo kwaye lisetyenziswa ingakumbi xa liquid kubonisa umqondiso amasuntswana zesakhiwo (umzekelo, fme-olungisiweyo jadeite jade)

gemstone Composite

ukubona gemstone ndawonye

neeperile likanokrwece

neeperile pink: neeperile zingafumaneka likanokrwece omkhulu, wenkumba univalve yafunyanwa kufuphi nonxweme Florida, umsantsa of California kunye Mexico. Ezi neeperile ikholisa ezipinki (-orenji epinki okanye amhlophe) ngebala kunye luphawulwa kukunqongophala kusalekwa nacreous

Conchoidal

ndibone ukwaphuka

Qhagamshelana kum tamorphic

le recrystallization okubhalwe bezimbiwa zeengxondorha pre-ezikhoyo okanye kufutshane kummandla zoqhagamshelwano ngenxa ebusweni magmas

Qhagamshelana amawele

uhlobo akhazimlayo yokuthungelana apho bantu ba kwi zoqhagamshelwano ecaleni moya efanayo (-moya amawele). Amalungu amabini yikristale enjalo ezinxulumene ukuba inxalenye enye yajikeleziswa ngokusebenzisa 180 ° (isiqingatha turn) malunga axis (esqwini amawele) ngoko iziqingatha ezibini wayeza ukumila yikristale ngamnye. Amawele zoqhagamshelwano ikhona iifom ezimbini: zoqhagamshelwano elinye iwele-apho 2 macala e nekristale ukuze reverse ukwenzela ukuba omnye isiqingatha esijikeleziswa 180 ° malunga womgca bazibandakanye, ekwimo yikristale eqhelekileyo ifunyenwe; ngokuphindaphindiweyo, amawele-a polysynthetic okanye lammelar uhlobo akhazimlayo yokuthungelana equka uthotho amawele zoqhagamshelwano ngokufuthi zizixwexwe kakhulu. Ezi zicwangciswe orientation malunga abamelwane babo nangoko (umzekelo, njengoko efumaneka Corundum kunye feldspar). Bona amawele interpenetrant

angle Critical

loo engile izehlo apho ray ukukhanya leyo ohamba ukusuka azike optically ukuba mpawu eliphakathi oku refracted e 90 ° ngokwahlukileyo (oko kukuthi, loo nto ngokukhawuleza komhlaba eendaba amabini zoqhagamshelwano). Qaphela: naluphi na ukunyuka kule engile izehlo kuya kubangela ray refracted ukuba babuye umva kwi eliphakathi original apho kuya beyithobela imithetho bokubonisa (oko kukuthi, loo nto iya ngokupheleleyo ngaphakathi ibonakala.)

Cryptocrystalline

(Crypto = efihliweyo). Ikota kusetyenziswa ukuchaza ekuzezi inani omkhulu zeekristali ezincinane rhoqo sub-noluncinci ukuzazi ubunzima eqinile. Inkqutyana-noluncinci akhazimlayo aggregate angavela amorphous ukuba ngeliso lenyama

Crystal

njengekristale yinto siluqilima iyunifomu iikhemikhali kunye isakhiwo wayalela internai atom uhlobo lwangaphandle lingqongwe moya symmetrically amalungiselelo ubuso (ezisicaba)

uhlobo Crystal

luhlobo njengekristale libandakanya cwci ezo ibobaa bazibuza enxulumene nezamazembe crystallographic (umzekelo, iphiramidi, iprism, pinacoid, udaka)

Crystal mkhwa

iimilo yikristale (uhlobo, kunye kwiimpawu zomphandle) apho izimbiwa sidla ngokuba imikhwa yabo akhazimlayo

inclusions Crystal

yikristale inclusions abonakalayo ngokuba abo iikona emincinane kwaye tse noko. elintlangothi lazo iifomu elirhangqiweyo kancinane nazo wadibana ngenxa reabsorption ye inclusions. (Yikristale inclusions ngokuqhelekileyo ukubonisa phezulu isiqabu ngokuchasene komkhosi ngasemva xa zijongwa phantsi darkfield ukhanyiso. Baya zitshekishwe ngokusebenzisa polars bawela.)

Crystal macala

yikristale macala ibhekisa ngokomfuziselo elungeleleneyo ngokweathom. Yeyona yokuzala ngqo (phinda imbonakalo) yobuso efanayo yikristale (elintlangothi, iikona) ezibonisa lungiselelo wayalela angaphakathi kweziyobisi.

ezikrelekrele

izinto crystalline ngokuthi nkcazo ngezimbiwa eqinileyo ogama Iiyuniyoni, athom okanye iimolekyuli zicwangciswe ngendlela enocwangco. Ukuziqhelisa, lo gama idla ngokusetyenziswa ukuchaza izinto, umnini isakhiwo rhoqo kunye neepropati kumacala kodwa ukuba imilo lwangaphandle zejometri

zokutyhomfa Crystallographic

ezi imigca yentelekelelo yobude ukubaleka elingenammiselo ngokusebenzisa

yikristale efanelekileyo kumacala ezithile article ngokunxulumene lingano yikristale. Baya yendlela embindini yikristale kwindawo ebizwa ngokuba imvelaphi. (Bona imigca yereferensi kulinganiswa imigama lwezizalwane utyekelo ubuso ezahlukeneyo apho.)

neeperile nesiphucukileyo

neeperile nesiphucukileyo na yimibutho ubaxo yabangela ngokupheleleyo okanye ngokungaphelelanga

ngenxa songenelelo arhente yoluntu kwi Kumbindi izilwanyana nemveliso. Oku kusebenza neeperile nesiphucukileyo enoba okanye ngaphandle inucleus

neeperile mjikelo

neperile obenza ngaphakathi umzimba lemollusk pearl kwaye bhitmephu ukumila

ukubandakanywa Dendritic

umthi-ezifanayo okanye moss-like liqhekeza ukuzaliswa (apho inclusions izinto ezahlukileyo ukuze fil ikhefu -. ngokokuqhelekileyo oxide intsimbi)

Divitrify

ukuze bazisunduze ye inkazimlo olubuglasi kunye transluceny. (Kwimeko imveliso iglasi ebizwa meta jade - kukuba uphuhliso bhaliweyo incipient)

Dichroscope

le dichroscope na isixhobo evumela iziphumo pleochroic kwezimbiwa gem amakaqwalaselwe, imibala ezimbini okanye ezikhanyayo bebala ngexesha

Diffraction

le umgca ukukhanya luhlobo ezizodwa zokuphazamisana ukukhanya apho mhlophe ahlulwa (kwisifudumeze) ngokwemibala yayo icandelo njengokukhanya edlula emngxunyeni encinane okanye xa amaza ukukhanya ipasise ngohlangothi phakathi kwezinto ngokwahlukileyo refracting (umzekelo, umdlalo bebala kubonwa yihakinto ezixabisekileyo)

kwiintsali

kwiintsali ke yokuzahlula (ekuphazanyisweni) bokukhanya emhlophe kwi imibala ecacicleyo yi Uphazamiso (ukugoba ukukhanya) njengokuba ukukhanya udlula imiphezulu ezimbini bethana. Kwi GEMS oko kudla ngokubizwa ngokuba 'umlilo'

refractive kabini

anisotropic - izimbiwa abonise iimpawu lwalatha woqondo (umzekelo, amatye kwi tetragonal, trigonal ezinamacala, orthorhombic, iinkqubo monoclinic kunye triclinic)

spectrum yezixhobo

gama lisetyenziswa lonke uluhlu wavelengths zamandla ukusuka amaza elide irediyo ngokusebenzisa wavelengths kakhulu mfutshane lendalo

Izakhi macala

iingxenye wolingano kukho indlela classifi-hlulo zeenkqubo ezisixhenxe njengekristale. Ke izixhobo ukuze sikwazi ukuba sahlule bachaze iintlobo ezahlukeneyo njengekristale imilo. Ziquka moya-macala, i-axis macala kunye neziko-macala (jonga iinkcazelo phantsi kwizintlu ngamnye)

Eluvium

imali eluvial luqulathe kobutyobo rock (zegrabile) apho laye (uyewazikhusela kakuhle ngaphandle) kumamkeli iliwa kwaye ihlala kulungiso (indawo) ngaphandle uqeqeshwa uthutho emilanjeni

ayikhuphi

enokukhupha okanye (umzekelo, ukukhanya)

Enantiomorphism

isakhiwo ze- ye Quartz leyo ekuchithekeni ekhohlo ne ekunene isandla ekwehleni ukukhula Quartz, kunye dyobhana yayo setyhula. (Qaphela: Ukubekwa yobuso IPASO ezincinane kwezibonakalayo rhoqo phezu yangaphandle kwifomu uncedo ukuchonga lokuhambisa ekhohlo okanye ekunene yikristale)

UPhuculo

ukubona unyango eyenziweyo

inclusions Epigenetic

post inclusions lwanamhlanje. Abo ezenzeke emva kokumiselwa umkhosi njengekristale. Ezi zibandakanya iintlobo ezahlukeneyo iingxondorha kunye inclusions kwezimbiwa ezenziwa exsolution (umzekelo, rutile isilika kwi Corundum); singasathethi ioli / opticon, njl, yokutyiwa kwi ngokwaphulwa zizaliswe ubuncwane.

inclusions Exsolution

ukubona exsolved

Exsolved

le unmixing kwezimbiwa. Ezinye izibini kwezimbiwa yenze izisombululo eqinileyo kwiqondo lobushushu eliphezulu kwaye baba iyahlozinga ebanda ephantsi. Xa ezi aphozise chu omnye yezimbiwa anganyanzeleka xa isakhiwo umkhosi ayaphola nezivumelwano, ngokoqobo ukucudisa ubumdaka zithuba ezingenabantu apho nokuntlalutyisa (umzekelo, rutile inaliti (isilika) kwi Corundum)

ukuphela

lokutshabalala ukungabikho ukukhanya abuyele iliso. Oku kubangela ukuba abonakale mnyama ilitye, ningaswele billiance

amagama inkalo

GEMS esinamacala kuba sisithsaba (isahlulo phezulu entla kombhinqo), itafile (inkalo embindini isithsaba), nombhinqo (kwicandelo le ilitye kunye umjikelezo mkhulu okanye umda yangaphandle), ngumnquba (inxalenye esezantsi ngezantsi umbhinqo ). Zonke ezinye iinkalo ungahluka ngobukhulu yabo, amaxesha okanye ubukho kuxhomekeke isimbo nangokukrola kusetyenziswa. Umzekelo, kwi umgangatho inyathelo-wonqanyulwa (nelesmarado cut) amatye culet (nkalo encinane emazantsi egumbini) ithathwa umgca zikhangeleke (elide kumgca owandisiweyo ecaleni embindini ezantsi egumbini)

cleavage zobuxoki

ukubona Wahlula

Iintsiba ukubandakanywa

moya ye nemingxuma emfutshane yaye ngokuqhelekileyo ivele njenge inkitha amacandelo ocoliweyo intonga-injengayo intercommunicating imijelo (ngokuqhelekileyo ulwelo qhu).

uboya

ligama kunikwa izinto apho liquid abasemthethweni zezi yenaliti ezimilise (umzekelo, iasbhestosi, nephrite jade)

inclusions womwe

ezo nani kwaziwa ngeentsiba ukuphiliswa kwaye zibandakanya interconnecting uthungelwano lamajelo ulwelo-zigcwaliswe kwaye amathontsi ngokungathi iminwe. Ngokuqhelekileyo isiphumo kwezisombululo nezimbiwa ngokuthe nokuyicoca ibe ophuke pre-ezikhoyo kwi-yikristale sele, kwaye ephilisa Volcanic. Enye imeko apho iimpawu ezinjalo Kothi ngexesha lonyango ubushushu ubushushu. Lweminwe zixhaphakile kwekorale iphathwa

Gqiba

entanjeni ibhekisa umgangatho faceting ye gem kwaye kugwetywa iqondo ukhanye, rhoqo, kwaye flatness ngayo inkalo nganye

Fluorescence

rescence na ukukhutshwa ukukhanya ibonakale anqabileyo ukuba sebesazi radiations ezibonakalayo okanye engabonakaliyo ngamaza elifutshane (amandla ephakamileyo)

ukwaphuka

ngokwaphulwa yinto itshipu mgaqweni okanye ukuqhawuka ilitye

gem

nelitye elinqabileyo naluphi na uhlobo, zisike olukhazimlisiweyo nesihombo (iperile na ngaphandle ephawulekayo semfuno mva). Eyona ngokuthi nkcazo umntu anazo ubuhle, ixesha elide kunye nokunqaba

iglasi

iglasi gama lisetyenziswa kwi izinto ezo esishiywe ukunyibilika kwaye ukupholisa ngokukhawuleza kwezinto nezimbiwa, ebangela ukuba kusekwe izinto amorphous. Glass kunokuba eyenziweyo (ezenziwe ngabantu, ngamanye amaxesha ibizwa ngokuba Cola) okanye ngaphezulu kunqabile, umzekelo zendalo, obsidian (iglasi mlilo), tektites (wacinga ukuba iimveliso splash meteoric)

inyengane

lenyengane kukukhanya ezinemibala, ontlakantlaka-tofo imabhuli izifaka iliwa yenziwe ngeasidi Quartz, feldspar kunye mica

sibophe ukukhula

bands khaphu kwaye omnyama imigca ethe ngqo kwi engile alandela umzekelo noshowo iiminerali

umkhwa

imilo iimpawu apho ngezimbiwa ngokuqhelekileyo kwenzeka. Mkhwa ibandakanya kungekuphela nje ifomu lwangaphandle ngokuqhelekileyo eyamkelwe iiminerali kodwa iziphumo kumphezulu eqhelekileyo kwakunye

Hackly

ndibone ukwaphuka

Halo ukubandakanywa

akhazimlayo ukubandakanywa engqongwe (s) ophuke uxinezeleko. Ezi kwakhona khangela ngathi ibhabhathane kunye amaphiko amabini yikristale ziquka oluvele (leyo edla Zircon)

ukuqina

lukhuni ke amandla ngezimbiwa kufuneka sixhathise besonwaya (lingonakali). Bona kwakhona isikali Eshtemo ngayo

ephilisa iintanda

waphilisa iintanda (ukucandeka okanye cleavages) apho ulwelo bangena ikhefu kunye yikristale wakhula kunye. Ngokufuthi iinxalenye kulwelo zisamiliseleke kwi nemingxuma kunye namajelo ebangela feathery okanye womwe-ezifana Iipateni (ngamanye amaxesha intsimbi-odyojwe)

Hue

nombala ibhekisa igama lombala ngokwayo: le iminqweno olunyulu ecacicleyo ibomvu, orenji, omthubi, oluhlaza, nemisonto emsi iindidi ezi. Hue kwakhona ibhekisa ukubaqhelanisa nemfusa (phakathi ebomvu bubomvu), nto leyo ayifumaneki kwi spectrum ilanga

wobushushu

namawa ebekwe phantsi, ngokuqhelekileyo kwezi zigaba yokugqibela yokudityaniswa oluntabamlilo ukusuka iziqina izityebi ngamanzi kunye nezinye iigesi. Imithambo wobushushu kwezimbiwa isityebi izisombululo lokucoca ngapha izikhewu kunye iingxondorha ludaka kunye nefom yikristale nemingxuma emgceni eweni

Idiochromatic

xa element leenguqu yinto abakhoyo ebalulekileyo eziphathekayo gem, izinto gem na idiochromatic (idio = ukuzeyisa, Chroma = umbala)

cell ukuntywiliselwa

cell iglasi encinane equlethe ulwelo ezifanelekileyo. Umgaqo ngasemva usebenzisa kwiseli emanzini ukuba isalathisi refractive kulwelo ukuba ilitye, kokukhona kuya kuba lula ukubona ilitye. Phantse naluphi na ulwelo ezingenambala, nokuba ngamanzi, ndinqumle phantsi komhlaba bokubonisa, uze wenze inclusions ukubukela lula kakhulu

Endaweni yokuhlala

izinto kwadityanwa indawo apho yaqala kwasekwa okanye idiphozithwe kuthiwa kufunyanwa behleli (ngokoqobo endaweni)

ukubandakanywa

elide jikelele nasiphi na isiphene okanye isitenxo ngaphakathi gem. Inclusions zahlulwe iintlobo ezintathu ezahlukeneyo: eqinileyo-zombini crystalline (umzekelo, Zircon kwi nesafire) okanye non-crystalline (umzekelo, iglasi zendalo peridot) abenzekayo. Nemingxuma-ezi Ungamisela ngexesha lokukhula umkhosi GEMS (inclusions eziziiprayimari), okanye emva koko (inclusions eziziisekondari). Nokuba hlobo ukuze ndizaliswe nayiphi indibanisela ulwelo, igesi okanye eqinileyo. Abo izigaba ezibini nangaphezulu sathiwa multiphase. Ukukhula iziganeko-umbala lwemida nokubandakanya bobabini imizekelo bemimangaliso yokukhula

Infrared

iindlela obubomvurha ngezantsi ebomvu kwaye oku uluhlu imitha iqala wavelengths ukuba akukho ngaphezu 700nm bombala obomvu. imitha Infrared yaziwa jikelele ngokuba ubushushu kuba uvelisa sekuziveni onobubele xa wabetha ngokuqakatha yethu

Ungenelelo

apho imitha ezimbini behamba endleleni efanayo, kodwa ngaphandle isigaba (inqwanqwa), anikane aphazamisane omnye nomnye ebangela nokuba ukuphela iyonke yokukhanya okanye pre-nokuvelela enye okanye ngaphezulu imibala

amanani Ukuphazamisa

ezi ziphumo woqondo zayibonayo izimbiwa kabini refractive igqalwa ngokusebenzisa ubuso ngaxeshanye kwi convergent umqadi yokukhanya mihla. Baza kukwazi ulwazi malunga kwembalo amatye

twins Interpenetrant

uhlobo akhazimlayo yokuthungelana apho abantu ababini ukuze ikhule ndawonye ukuba kuyabonakala ukuba ibingenakungeneka omnye komnye (rhoqo ukuvelisa umnqamlezo okanye inkwenkwezi amatye)

Iridescence

iridescence okanye umdlalo ngemibala ichaza umbala okanye uthotho imibala eziveliswa uphazamiseko okanye umgca xa ukukhanya lubonakala mhlawumbi bhanyabhanya ezicekethekileyo okanye isakhiwo obubodwa yihakinto anqabileyo

indawo Isomorphous

endaweni enye imichiza element omnye ke valency efanayo ukwakhiwa kwemichiza. Oku kuphumela yokungafani ngokubanzi zobumnini emzimbeni samalungu thotho. Valency: kwe michiza akumila kunye radius ionic

Isotropic

ukubona imingxunya refractive

Keshi neeperile nesiphucukileyo

eyenzeka ngokwendalo neeperile yamanzi non-nucleated eyenza kwi wenkumba xa sibuyiswa emanzini emva ukususwa kwisityalo neyeeperile non-nucleated nesiphucukileyo. Ezi ukuba mazingabhidaniswa pearis imbewu zaselwandle apho zidla mncinci kakhulu. Iimbaza `keshi 'ukuba atsalele-njalo kuba kwangokunjalo ke azonakalanga ukusuka layila ngumntu. Ngamanye amaxesha kuye kuthiwe seedless 'neeperile `ukwenza umahluko kunye non-nucleated. Bona kwakhona neeperile Biwa

neeperile Keshi (elwandle)

imbewu umnxeba neeperile Japanese `keshi '(poppies). Umbutho apha phakathi ubungakanani isuntswana popi kunye neeperile ezincinane kakhulu kwasekwa ngokwendalo

Konoscope

indawo polariscope ifakelwe kokuba zihlalutywe ngamandla actions leyo inceda lula zokubonwa amanani uphazamiseko

inclusions Lamellae

okubangelwa ukubotshwa polysynthetic. Angavela njengoko siyabamfamekisa okanye ngaphaya iintlanzi-umgca. Basenokuba nako kubonakala ngokuhlanganisana engile (umzekelo, kwi Corundum apho kudibana imiyalelo)

Imihlaba Lateritic

izinto emhlabeni (kwenziwa iziqwenga iliwa nezihluma) apho ikakhulu ethatyathwe basait ibolile (a olungisiweyo iliwa entle mnyama mlilo zizityebi ngentsimbi nezinki, nesivulelekileyo kakhulu iziphumo ziimozulu imichiza kwimozulu yetropiki)

Luminescence

elide jikelele ngenxa ngokunika off ebonakalayo 'ukukhanya abandayo yinto ethile phezu ukufumana amandla intshiyekela uhlobo olunye okanye kwelinye. Nesenzeko Imigaqo ezintlanu luminescent zezi: chemi-luminescence (japan yokutshintsha imichiza), tribo-luminescence (eziveliswa ukukhuhlana), thermo-luminescence (eziveliswa bubushushu), photo¬luminescence (eziveliswa radiations ezibonakalayo okanye engabonakaliyo zamandla ephakamileyo / elifutshane kwamaza) kunye cathodoluminescence (iziphumo ukusuka excitation na umqadi electron kwigumbi iflaski)

ayenechaphothi

ayenechaphothi linani nomgangatho ukukhanya lubonakala ukusuka kumphezulu ilitye. La magama alandelayo asetyenziswe ukuchaza khanuki gemstone: ebuntsimbi: inkazimlo eliphezulu oboniswe izimbiwa ebuntsimbi mfiliba. adamantine: umphezulu reflectivity eliphezulu. vitreous: inkazimlo iglasi-ngathi awayedla isininzi ubuncwane. emnandi: inkazimlo obabuthandwa nentlaka (ezithambileyo kunye RI libya). anencindi: phantse Matte umphezulu (ngamanye amaxesha kuthiwa kutyetyiswa). kutyetyiswa: olunamafutha kancinane ekhangela ngenxa ukusasazeka zokukhanya umphezulu microscopically rough. ubaxo: zisakhazimla ngaperile / iperile unina-of-. silky: inkazimlo uboya isilika

Mabe (nesiphucukileyo) neeperile

neeperile zeeblista nesiphucukileyo edityanisiweyo apho kwinucleus original lisusiwe kwaza endaweni amaso amancinane samente, kwaye isiqwenga amajukujuku abusazinge lweenkobe ye-iperile qhiwu noseko lwalo, ukuba zizobandakanya indawo ningaswele nacre

iziqina

etyhidiweyo (ulwelo) iliwa

oluthambileyo

iindlela oluthambileyo ukuba esikwaziyo lithe landiswa okanye iphenjelelwa ukumbetha ngehamile okanye xi labaqengqeleki

Man-ezenziwe

imveliso eyenziwe ngumntu Ngokwengcaciso yenye ethe zadityaniswa elebhu. (Ukuba nokulungelelanisa na ukuba kunye okanye ukudibanisa izinto opheleleyo leqela). Isiphetho inokuba gemstone eyenziwayo (oko kukuthi, umntu lowo abe ngumphelelisi zendalo) okanye gemstone eyenziweyo (oko kukuthi, umntu ukuba akukho umlingani zendalo)

Kuku

elide kusetyenziswa ukuchaza izinto leyo anazo isakhiwo article internai kukho njengekristale, kodwa alubonisi ifomu yangaphandle zejometri. Oku kubunjwa iiyunithi yikristale nye (umzekelo, wesuka Quartz) okanye ngaphezulu (umzekelo, jadeite)

Mettalic

ukubona inkazimlo

Metamict

igama ezisetyenziselwa izinto ethe wahlaselwa ikhefu-phantsi crystalline ukuya urhulumente ngokuyinxenye amorphous; eqhelekileyo kwizimbiwa equlathe radioactive materials (umzekelo, uhlobo libya Zircon)

ilitye

(ilitye ngokoqobo, watshintsha ekwimo) namawa ayilwa kwamatye pre-ezikhoyo ikakhulu yi sisenzo soxinzelelo, ubushushu kunye / okanye nokwaziswa imichiza olutsha

eqatywe Metric (oka)

enye eqatywe metric = esinye isihlanu gram (0.20gr) okanye 200 milligrams (mg). A eqatywe metric na njengeyunithi ngokobunzima anqabileyo cwci, neeperile nesiphucukileyo. Obu bunzima wavakalisa ukuba iindawo ezimbini lesishumi kwaye ngenani badla iguqulelwe ngokuba 'amanqaku', oko kukuthi, 1 eqatywe metric = amanqaku 100

imakroskopu

isixhobo enombala eyenziwa indibanisela eneeglasi uvelisa umfanekiso amhlonela ngayo into. Eminye imisebenzi ebalulekileyo ngakumbi magnification: yokufunda ukubandakanywa (ezendalo vs. ngumntu; indlela ukuyilwa / akhazimlayo nokukhula); yoviwo komhlaba (umgangatho aqingqiweyo (macala), IsiPolish (iimeko iinkalo, firemarks); ukubonwa amatye ezijongeneyo; ukuchongwa unyango eyenziweyo; ukubona ukuba sesichengeni umonakalo (umzekelo, ubukho eyaphukileyo kunye / okanye cleavage); ukubona kabini (SR vs .S, nam kubonisa isixa birefringence)

Mineral

ngezimbiwa na ioli yokwemvelo ezingaphiliyo ukuba sisincoko imichiza kunye neepropati ezibonakalayo leyo rhoqo phakathi kwemida elimxinwa. Ukwakhiwa kwayo Kudla ezikrelekrele

ukukhanya Monochromatic

ukukhanya monochromatic na ukukhanya neembono enye kuphela. Ukukhanya umgangatho yellow monochromatic kusetyenziswa imilinganiselo Refractometer lithatyathwe isibane sodium umphunga. Oku ngenene iquka imigca emibini ngokusondeleyo kakhulu bebekwe amadlozi, ixabiso ogama kuthetha na 589.3nm

inclusions Multiphase

inclusions ezinokuba ulwelo kunye negesi kunye / okanye crystals

Nacre

indawo secretion eveliswe ingubo enkulu kwezinye izilwanyana neyenza esicwangciswe iridescent bobabini perile kunye umphezulu nonina-of-iperile ngaphakathi iqokobhe lemollusk. Nacre ibandakanya carbonate ezikrelekrele zekalika kunye nezinto eziphilayo ekuthiwa conchiolin

Namometers (NM)

iyunithi yokulinganisa ngenxa wavelengths elifutshane malumga yezixhobo (zamandla). 1 nanometer = 1 millioneth yinxalenye eemilimitha (1 / 1,000,000 NM) umzekelo, ukukhanya ebonakalayo uwela phakathi 700nm (ebomvu) kwaye 400nm (bubomvu)

cut Native

elide zisetyenziselwa isimbo Ukusebznisa abakhethelwe ubuninzi ukugcinwa ubunzima. Ezi ngamatye aqingqiweyo elingqokolayo paviliyoni ezinkulu rhoqo kufuna

recutting ukuba bafikelele ibathwana ngcono

yikristale elibi

cavities ngaphakathi gem ukuba imilo crystalline. Ezi nemingxuma zadalwa xa kwiindawo ezithile ukukhula ngokukhawuleza ngaphezu kwezinye iindawo, yenza uze ufake void okanye apho yikristale ukubandakanywa original uchithiwe phandle (liquid negative esoloko ikhaphukhaphu umkhosi phantsi darkfield ukhanyiso)

ukubandakanywa elibi

okufakwe ngokuwanyusa gesi okanye engamanzi zizaliswe okanye iqulathe ukubandakanywa encinane esiqinileyo (bona yikristale kwakhona negative)

ukufunda elibi

ukuba ilitye phantsi uvavanyo phezu refractometer ithe R.1 ngaphezu uluhlu kwisixhobo, akukho ngohlangothi isithunzi bubonakele (ngaphandle kwalowo ulwelo zoqhagamshelwano)

Non-ezikrelekrele

iiminerali kunye nezinye izinto kuthiwa engenalucalu-crystalline okanye amorphous (ngokoqobo, ngaphandle form) xa Jack zilungelelene isakhiwo internai elichazwayo kunye nenkangeleko sangaphandle geometrically rhoqo (umzekelo, le michiza nezimbiwa, yihakinto kunye iglasi, kwakunye nezinto eziphilayo)

ukukhanya Non-ezimhlophe

ukukhanya non-mhlophe (oko kukuthi, nezabeBala) luchazwa ngokwemiqathango hue yayo (oko kukuthi, umbala ngamaza yayo pre-lubalaseleyo), bantu (ubunzulu okanye amandla umbala lubalaseleyo) kunye nethoni (umthunzi-ukukhanya ukuba mnyama)

eqhelekileyo

kwi oganikhi engile cwci kukho umlinganiselo kwiinkqubo eziqhelekileyo, ngumgca osengqondweni ezotywe xande (90 kwindawo apho ray wasibetha umphezulu hayi ukusuka kumphezulu ngokwayo

axis bafakele

kwicala le Uphazamiso enye ngaphakathi yikristale ngenye ngokuphindwe refractive yaziwa ngokuba axis optic

uphawu optic

ukubona indalo optic

Optic nani nqanaba

anomhlaba iglasi efakelwe nentonga mfutshane leyo isebenza kokuba zihlalutywe kwelisa ukunceda ukuzimisela iipateni uphazamiseko zisabonakala kukho axis optic eziphathekayo anisotropic

optic indalo

uhlobo optic we ngezimbiwa: izimbiwa yahlulwe (uphawu optic) uniaxial, biaxial kunye isotropic. izimbiwa Uniaxial kwaye biaxial ukuba yahlulwe ngokongezelelweyo ukuba abo ezo optically HIV kunye nabo apho awunayo optically (uphawu optic)

uphawu optic

ukubona indalo optic

mninzi Optical

mninzi enombala na ipropati entsonkothileyo leyo demonstates ngokwalo e kuyehla bokukhanya. (Jonga kwakhona Uphazamiso)

iimveliso organic

iimveliso organic abo nezinto eziveliswa umsebenzi eziphilayo

YaseMpuma (ngaperile)

kumphezulu sibengezela iridescent ngaperile gem nonina-of-perile. Oku kubangelwa nokugxuphuleka kukhanya bhanya obhityileyo (iipleyiti obhityileyo umaleko nacreous) kunye umgca ukusuka kungqameko omhle iipleyiti

neeperile Oriental

Ukusetyenziswa kweli gama luvumeleke echaza neeperile zendalo ezifumaneka Iimollusk amanzi Kuyile Фантастичний ye Gulf. Nangona kunjalo, oku kube ngokwesiko urhwebo jikelele ngakumbi neeperile yendalo eklasini cwci ndifuze njengoko oriental

okugqibela

ekwahlukaneni yi ukophuka okwenzeka ecaleni moya yobuthathaka, kunokuba ecaleni moya enxuseneyo nomkhenkce ubuso, okanye kunokwenzeka

yikristale kobuso, njengoko kwi cleavage (oko eyaziwa ngokuba cleavage bobuxoki)

Pearl ingqolowa

ukhozo pearl elicandelo umgangatho iperile zalishumi 1 ingqolowa = 0.25 eqatywe (1 oka = 4grains)

neeperile

neeperile ezi kwemvelo seentuku ngempazamo kwaye ngaphandle kokusebenzisa nayiphi arhente yoluntu, esembindini emollusk. Aquka kwinto ephilayo (a scleroprotein ogama conchiolin) kwaye ngecalcium carbonate (ngokuqhelekileyo ngokohlobo aragonite) zicwangciswe omaleko concentric, welaphu leyo kakhulu nacreous

Pearly

ukubona inkazimlo

Pegmatites

imabhuli neliwa inzuzo ontlakantlaka kudla equlathe izimbiwa ezinqabileyo, kuquka liquid amakhulu anqabileyo (umzekelo, nekrizolite, chrysoberyl, feldspar, Quartz, spessartite garnet)

semgceni

semgceni na isiphumo ulibaziseko rescence (oko kukuthi, loo nto yinto nje obungephi). Yeyona ukukhutshwa waqhubeka yokukhanya ebonakala emva umthombo kwimitha meleza kuphelile

Photoluminescence

photoluminescence sisigama oludityanelweyo rescence kunye semgceni. Oku isiphumo okuboniswa izinto ezithile ukuvelisa ukukhanya wabonakala kukufunyanwa ezimfutshane ngamaza ngemitha (umzekelo, radiations zikazibuthe kwi zibonakale (blue), uzuba kunye x-reyi yinxalenye malumga)

Pinpoints

amasuntswana amancinane sabufumana inclusions. Xa ezi zinto zikhoyo amanani amakhulu ukuze ingachazwa njengelifu kunye elubala amatye lusenokungalungiseki

nobambe iidipozithi

nobambe iidipozithi luqulathe kumphezulu zoqhaphelo kwezimbiwa ezixabisekileyo womxhuzulane high ezithile (ixesha elide) eziye kwenziwa ngo yemozulu eliweni umzali, kwiimeko ezininzi, emva koko ihanjiswa emithonjeni okanye intshukumo yamaza

Womgca macala

enye yezinto ezifunekayo macala; moya-macala lo moya wentelekelelo o wahlula umzimba ibe ngamaqela amabini ukuze inxalenye ngamnye olubonakaliswe (isipili) umfanekiso kwelinye (oko kukuthi, inxenye nganye ngqo uguqulo asebenzisana ngayo nabanye)

iiplastiki

ligama jikelele inani kwezinto eziphilayo ezenziwe (ngokuqhelekileyo ngePolymer esekelwe resin) nabanako nwe bekayo okanye ukubunjwa ubushushu kunye / okanye uxinzelelo

Dlala imibala

adlala elide umbala ichaza uthotho imibala zayibonayo ukukhanya lubonakala ukusuka bhanyabhanya ezicekethekileyo okanye ukusuka kwisinye isakhiwo Ilibele-injengayo yihakinto anqabileyo. Kokuba lukhutshwe umgca (njengokutyhoboza phezulu ukukhanya emhlophe ngokwemibala zayo icandelo njengokuba ukukhanya edlula emngxunyeni elincinane) apho luhlobo ezizodwa zokuphazamisana sokukhanya

Pleochroism

pleochroism (ngokoqobo, abantu abaninzi ezinemibala) ligama jikelele kusetyenziswa ukuchaza imibala eyahlukileyo lwalatha leyo kunokubonwa ngamatye ezithile ezinemibala owahlukanisa ukukhanya (oko kukuthi, abo ngokuphindwe refracting) ngenxa yabo isakhiwo nomkhenkce sangaphakathi. Oku kuquka dichroism (ezimibala mibini) kunye trichroism (bebala ezintathu)

Polariscope

le polariscope kukho isixhobo ebandakanya iiyunithi ezimbini kwimveliso moya yintiyo ukukhanya amalungiselelo kunye nqanaba ejikelezayo phakathi kwabo. Iimvavanyo isixhobo kuphela ukuba okanye hayi mbandela zibangele okanye ithintelwa refractive

abasabela Polariscope

imingxunya refractive-izinto uhlala mnyama lonke 360 ° naye. Ukuba umbandela liphantsi koxinzelelo internai ukuze ukubonisa anomalous (lobuxoki) Uphazamiso kabini (ADR), ngokuqhelekileyo ngokohlobo bands esimfaneleko okanye amabala ezitenxileyo. Double refractive-amatye liqhephuka yikristale enye abaphathiswe ezine yokukhanya kunye nezikhundla ezine ezimnyama. nganisa ezikrelekrele okanye izinto DR kakhulu zibandakanywe kubonakale ukukhanya cwci lonke 360 ° naye. nani-in Ungenelelo kwimeko yeencwadi nezibonelelo DR, ukuba iimeko tye kunye nani uphazamiseko kuphawuliwe, kunokwenzeka kwakhona ukuqinisekisa ukuba ilitye uniaxial okanye biaxial. (Uphawu-kanye optic wafumana inani uphazamiseko, ke ngoko ukuba kuqinisekiswe ukuba ngaba ilitye unayo okanye awunayo ngoncedo

iipleyiti isincedisi zinikwa ngokukodwa loo njongo)

Polycrystalline

iiminerali leyo yesixa zeekristali ezincinane sathiwa polycrystalline. Ezi liquid ezincinane kunokubonwa usebenzisa magnification, kwaye ngamanye amaxesha neliso kuphela (umzekelo, phantse jadeite cwci jade)

twins Polysynthetic

ukubona amawele lammelar

Potch (yihakinto efanayo)

izinto milky ningaswele lokudlala ibala, emalungu amanqanaba dust sobungakanani yokungalingani ngaloo ibangela ukukhanya ukuba saa kunokuba diffracted

inclusions Protogenetic

inclusions pre-ezikhoyo:. abo ababekho phambi umkhosi yikristale waqalisa lokubumba aginywa 'ukulungele wenza' ukuya yokugqibela (umzekelo, amasuntswana eqinileyo kunye liquid ezincinane Ajongeka ukuba esemthe nasezingubeni lonke yaye kunqabile zihlobene kwi nginginya yikristale ngayo ulwakhiwo

Pseudomorph

indawo pseudomorph (ifom ubuxoki) yiminerali nothabatha ifomu (imilo) ngomnye izimbiwa (okanye into ephilayo) ngenxa yobushushu kunye / okanye uxinzelelo okanye kwemichiza, umzekelo, amehlo ingwe ngayo (Quartz nokutshintshwa crocidolite, kukho izimbiwa asbestos); iinkuni neagati (a Quartz replacement iinkuni)

ingcingane

Oko ubuyiselo ngumntu umphezulu (nokuba internai okanye nangaphandle) ezinye ukukhanya leyo bawa phezu komhlaba. Bona Laws Snell ngayo

Uphazamiso

Uphazamiso na utshintsho icala apho ukukhanya uhamba xa udlula ukusuka eendaba enye ukuya kwenye mninzi enombala owahlukileyo (ngaphandle xa Ngokubetha komhlaba oqhelekileyo eendaba ezimbini 90 °). Njengokuba ukukhanya udlula ukusuka zanqaba ukuya eliphakathi azike (umzekelo, ukusuka umoya ilitye) oko zityediwe ekuyeni eziqhelekileyo, ngokuphikisayo njengoko udlula ukusuka azike ukuya eliphakathi zanqaba oko igobele kude eqhelekileyo. mninzi Optical na ipropati entsonkothileyo leyo ebonakalisa ukuba ngokwalo e kuyehla bokukhanya. Bona Laws Snell ngayo

index Refractive (RI)

le RI kukho ratio elula ngokuthelekisa isantya ukukhanya umoya isantya ukukhanya eliphakathi elinikiweyo. Umgangatho kusetyenziswa umlinganiselo index refractive na umoya (ngokungqongqo iflaski); utsho RI yomoya luthathwa 1.00

Metamorphic Regional

le recrystallization okubhalwe bezimbiwa zeengxondorha pre-akhoyo ukunyuka kwamazinga obushushu (700 ° -2000 ° C) phantsi koxinzelelo

mninzi Relative

Khangela womxhuzulane ezithile (SG)

wavelengths elishiyekileyo

wavelengths oshiyekileyo abo wavelengths kwelifunekayo umbandela ezidibanisa ukuba asinike umbala perc-eived yento

emnandi

jonga inkazimlo

iliwa

Iliwa ibandakanya amasuntswana yezimbiwa ezithe ikhule okanye ngesamente ngokuthi inkqubo yemichiza okanye luqiniswe kunye lilanga okanye uxinzelelo

Indlela epholileyo

ibhekisa umgangatho okanye ubunzulu umbala zayibonayo sithi brilliancy samatye esinamacala ngaphaya

Schiller

bona sibengezela

Scintillation

ibengezela; ukuphana kucinywa, ukukhanya ezimfutshane eliqaqambileyo ukukhanya

Sectile

sectile ibhekisa izinto ulwenzeko kokuba abezichubile yi imela egudileyo aqingqiweyo

ludaka

abo basekwa kubanceda eziphathekayo (neetyuwa) oluvela yokuwa ngokwasemzimbeni imichiza kwamatye pre-akhoyo kumphezulu womhlaba

neeperile Seed

neeperile ezincinane kakhulu (ngaphantsi v. ingqolowa / nama. 2mm) ukuba ngokwendalo kwasekwa kwithishu ezithambileyo lemollusk ngenxa ekuhlaselweni njengentlabathi, amaqanda ezidadayo ivideo, gazi okanye namanye amaqumrhu amazwe. neeperile imbewu zikholisa irregular kwaye iflethi, kodwa xa zifumaneka abo ngeenxa zonke ezinqabileyo, ngamaqashiso ngenxa ukusetyenziswa iimpahla. Bona kwakhona neeperile Keshi

nokufunxwa kukhetha

nokufunxwa yokukhetha lokukhanya ngokucinezela okanye nokufunxwa wavelengths ezithile e ku pa ekukhanyeni ngokusebenzisa into okanye iboniswe off umphezulu waso. Umbala iziphumo zokufunda ukususela eseleyo (intsalela) wavelengths ezirhec iliso

Taylor (okanye Schiller)

sibengezela yi ubukhazikhazi okanye uqukuqelo (saa) ukusebenza nelokucinga okubangelwa ukukhanya ukuba kubonakala ukusuka inclusions okanye iimpawu ukwakhiwa lilitye. Igama elithi iquka chatoyancy, asterism, adularescence, aventurescence, opalescence, iridescence (labrodrescence nomdlalo imibala in yihakinto)

Isilika (ufakwe)

uthotho kweenaliti ngaxeshanye (rutile rhoqo)

refractive enye

nezaziwa isotropic. izimbiwa leyo ukubonisa iimpawu ezifanayo woqondo kumacala cwci (umzekelo, amatye kwinkqubo cubic kunye nezinto amorphous)

Laws Snell ngayo Uphazamiso

xa ray ukukhanya udlula komnye eliphakathi ukuya kwenye kukho ratio article phakathi sine ye engile izehlo kwaye i sine ye engile Uphazamiso. I-ray siganeko, ray refracted kwaye eqhelekileyo (kwindawo izehlo) zezona cwci kwi moya mnye. Umlinganiselo rhoqo phakathi engile izehlo kunye Uphazamiso nayiphi eendaba amabini zoqhagamshelwano enombala wabizwa Snell isalathisi refractive (RI)

neeperile South Sea

neeperile nesiphucukileyo ngxilimbela, kwizixeko isilivere-ixela iimbatyisi iperile kunye sangqa 12 okanye 16mm. Ezi neeperile emhlophe enkulu kwamenza igama South Sea kuba ekuqaleni eveliswe yaseJapan in Microne-sia kunye Indonesia. Namhlanje ezi neeperile zisoloko ngaphezulu ziveliswa Australia Burma, kunye Indonesia, kwiPhilippines, Papua New Guinea Thailand njengoko imithombo ebalulekileyo kangako. Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku akukho kuye ingqokelela elibe nempumelelo ayitshicele ye ngembaza iperile isilivere-ixela, nto leyo ithetha ukuba nangoncedo iimbatyisi unina sinqongophele kwaye amaxabiso ngokufanelekileyo aphezulu

womxhuzulane ezithile (SG)

le SG okanye isalamane mninzi zelaphu lulwahlulo phakathi ubunzima zeyeza kunye ubunzima kukho umthamo elilinganayo wamanzi ecocekileyo 4 ° C (mninzi ubuninzi kwamanzi) kunye noxinzelelo olusemgangathweni emoyeni. SG ihlobene imichiza ukwakhiwa loo mbandela kwakunye nimanyane inter-atom (Eneneni, oku kuchatshazelwa kuphela ubunzima elichazwayo wecandelo izinto ezahlukeneyo, kodwa kwakhona indlela apho atom zibekwe ndawonye)

Spectroscope

isixhobo esithi sohlule kwavela ukukhanya zibe wavelengths alo okanye imibala spectrum ngokusebenzisa bemilo okanye umgca lwaso. Lo spectroscope sikuvumela ukuba ubone zigaba ezithile (imigca okanye bands) okanye imimandla (nokufunxwa ngokubanzi) bokukhanya ezimhlophe anokufunxwa gemstone ngokuthi kwaphelisa okanye Esasaza wavelengths lentsalela ethe wadluliselwa okanye kubonakala ukusuka ilitye phantsi uvavanyo (hayi Ail matye abonisa spectrum hayi cwci spectrums ezibonwayo iingxaki kodwa nokufunxwa bands kusenokubonisa arhente imibala okanye ubukho izinto ezithile)

Splintery

ndibone ukwaphuka

Symmetry

macala ibhekisa rhoqo okanye intsalela imilo gem kwi kokubini ubuso-isikhundla kunye neprofayle

inclusions Syngenetic

inclusions wayephila ebandakanya izinto ezithe zanikezelwa ngexesha elinye umkhosi crystai (umzekelo, izinto eziqinileyo izimbiwa; ulwelo kwi nemingxuma neentanda ephilisa; bands lommandla; inclusions ulwelo;. imizila zokukhula ezifana nombala yocando kunye nokusekwa amawele Kukho rhoqo kukho wayalela intergrowth phakathi inclusions syngenetic esilundwendwe yikristale ukuze ezimbini ukuze athwale ulwalamano lwesakhiwo ilawulwa yimithetho crystallographic

akude eyenziwayo

imveliso eyenziweyo na imichiza ukwakhiwa mnye, isakhiwo elichazwayo kunye neempawu zomzimba unguwabo yayo yendalo (umzekelo, iemeraldi eyenziwayo, Corundum eyenziwayo, njalo njalo)

ubenokuqina

ubenokuqina okanye Ukomelela na uxhathiso lilitye yokuphelisa okanye nefracturing. Kubhaliwe enxulumene izimbiwa ukukwazi ukufunxa izitha ngaphandle ukuphazamiseka isakhiwo internai. Ngokwemiqathango wadibana kule nkalo zibandakanya nkum sectile, ibhetyebhetye, luyaguquguquka kwaye elastic

bhanya Thin

zijongwa phantsi ukukhanya eboniswe ezi bhanya ezingcakacileyo kuba imbonakalo iridescent awayedla umaleko obhityileyo kweoli kwamanzi okanye kumphezulu embejembeje we bubble isepha

isigaba ezintathu ukubandakanywa

umngxuma wamanzi-ezaliswe equlethe kwiqamza kunye njengekristale

ilizwi

ithoni ibhekisa yesandi isizalwane okanye ubumnyama waqonda (nokuba lubhelu okanye emhlophe abamnyama)

Iyonke nelokucinga yangaphakathi

ukucingisisa yangaphakathi iyonke kwenzeka apho, ray agqitha ukukhanya ukusuka azike ukuya eliphakathi mpawu kwi-engile ngaphezu angle emandundu wabuyela eliphakathi azike apho uwugcinayo imithetho bokubonisa

ubulushica

ukubona ubenokuqina

izinto Transition

igama lisetyenziswa neempawu ezithile ebuntsimbi leyo ngenxa isakhiwo yabo ngokweathom, legalelo ukufakwa angakholelwa ukukhanya ngamatye idiochromatic kunye allochromatic. Bona ikhrom, icobalt, ubhedu, nevanadium, manganese, intsimbi, nickel kunye titanium

hambisa

Kwathi (umzekelo, ukukhanya) ukusuka kwenye eliphakathi ukuya kwelinye; ukuba ikhuphe (umzekelo, umqondiso) okanye thumela (e..g., ukusuka komnye umntu ukuya kwenye)

elubala

inkululeko ngayo ukukhanya kudlule okanye dlu ilitye. Zidanga ezahlukeneyo elubala inikwa: ngaphaya (TP) -oko into ecacileyo ibonisa kwaye ibizela umthamo omncinane ukukhanya leyo sazo phezu kwayo, kodwa ukwavumela inkoliso ukuba adlule. Into zijongwe ilitye kubonakala ecacileyo kunye neya-. Sub-ngaphaya (S-TP) -oko umba ukukhanya dlu ilitye, kodwa umphandle into kwelinye icala ilitye ayikwazi zizakubalulwa. Sub-engangenisi (S-TL) efundwayo kuphela isixa esincinci kakhulu ukukhanya kudlula gem emiphethweni ezibhityileyo. Dlula Kuluhlu (0) -ail kokukhanya ewa into mfiliba kusenokuqhutywa iboniswe okanye efunda. Akukho ukukhanya idlula umbandela, nokuba ezinemiphetho ezibhityileyo.

ngokwekhompyutha ukubandakanywa

idumbe-ngumtshangatshangiso okanye roiled isiphumo-wisps ujikelezise kombala

Twin akhazimlayo

njengekristale amawele na njengekristale elakhiwe ziziqingatha ezibini yikristale enye okanye liquid ezimbini okanye ngaphezulu iintlobo mnye abe nolwalamano ngqo crystallographic omnye komnye ndizityebisile kunye ngendlela ulingano (jonga amawele zoqhagamshelwano namawele interpenetrant)

isigaba Two ukubandakanywa

umngxuma wamanzi-ezaliswe equlethe kwiqamza okanye njengekristale

Yeultraviolet (UV)

zemitha kuthetha ngaphaya ngemisonto. Le uluhlu imitha iqala wavelengths ukuba ezimfutshane ngaphezu 400nm lokukhanya ngemisonto

amatye Uniaxial

kwi ezinamacala, iinkqubo yikristale trigonal kwaye tetragonal kukho optic enye axis (ulwalathiso Uphazamiso enye): izimbiwa ngoweqela ezi nkqubo baziwa uniaxial (ngamatye uniaxial esqwini optic ome nkqo inqununu 'c' esiqwini)

cell Unit

iyunithi yeseli lwesakhiwo yikristale leyo inxalenye incinane njengekristale leyo nangoku ke enayo kwiipropati uphawu yikristale ebizwa iseli unit. Ngendlela apho iiseli unit zifunjwe ngemvelo unina umisa imbonakalo yangaphandle yikristale

ukubandakanywa Veil

ukubona iintsiba ukubandakanywa

ukukhanya ebonakalayo

bokukhanya luhlobo zamandla leyo ekuchithekeni sikwazi ukubona. Nayiphi ngamaza imitha zikazibuthe ukuba malunga phakathi 400nm kwaye 700nm iyabonakala ukuba iliso lwabantu njengokuba ukukhanya

Vitreous

ukubona inkazimlo

ngamaza

indawo ngamaza uchazwa umgama phakathi iincopho ezimbini ezilandelelanayo ukuba yomtshangatshangiso

anencindi

ukubona inkazimlo

ukukhanya White

mhlophe (ukukhanya mixed) ubunjwe Yenza umxube nama ngokulinganayo yonke imibala okanye wavelengths ezenza ebonakalayo (bomvu, orenji, omthubi, oluhlaza, nemisonto emsi). Umbala ukukhanya iyahluka kunye sixhomekeke ngamaza. amaza Red kuba wavelengths elide (700 + NM) yaye oku lupholile ngokusebenzisa macala ngemisonto wavelengths, a ne imfutshane (400nm-malunga 1 / 4 ubude umtha ezibomvu)

ifestile

ekhanyayo ye ukuqhutywa umbala okubangelwa ukuvuza ukukhanya esivumela imvelaphi emva litye libonakalayo (funda-zibonakale)

Zircon Halo

ukubona ukubandakanywa Halo

striae lommandla

ubone umbala bands

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